Diabetes is one of the major diseases in India. The present review is attempts to enumerate the list of the plants used for antidiabetic medicine in Andhra Pradesh, India. The herbal medicine have been esteemed source of medicine hence medicinal plants growing concern in current days due to low toxicity and absence of side effects. The World Health Organization (WHO) says about 65-80% of the world’s population of developing countries depends on plants and plant derived compounds for their primary healthcare needs. In the view of above advantages the present review provides profile of 92 plants belongs to 51 families used to treat diabetes described. This clearly shows the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes.
Antidiuretic medicine, Medicinal plants, Diabetes, Andhra Pradesh.
Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder caused by absolute insufficient or inefficient insulin secretion and it is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus or insulindependent diabetes, or early-onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes, ketone-prone diabetes: It can occur in any age but mostly seen in young adult. It is an immune mediated disease resulting from immunological destruction in β-cells of pancreas which leads to insufficient production of insulin. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent or adult-onset diabetes: It is most common type affecting elderly and obese caused either by insulin resistance or deficient insulin secretion leading to hyperglycemia. It accounts for more than 80% of total case of diabetes and affects 18% of the population above 65 years of age, usually occurs in obese individuals. These individuals have normal or even greatly elevated insulin levels Gestational Diabetes mellitus: This type first recognize during the time of pregnancy where hyperglycemic condition develops in women who doesn’t have diabetes result from an insufficient insulin supply to meet tissue demand for normal blood glucose regulation. This problem usually clears up after birth of child, but have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Diabetes mellitus is a rapidly emerging medical problem. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), more than 371 million people across the globe have diabetes and this figure is predicted to increase to over 550 million by 2030.Traditional medicines derived mainly from plants play major role in the management of diabetes mellitus .Interest in herbal drugs is growing due to their efficiency, low toxicity and absence of side effects.
Review Result & Discussion
In the view of above advantages the present review provides profile of 92 plants belongs to 81 genera and 51 families used to treat diabetes. For each species of medicinal plants scientific name, common name, family and the parts of the medicinal plant used to treat Diabetes mellitus are provided. The most dominant families in the study were Apiaceous, Euphorbiaceous, Leguminosae each 4, Acanthaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepidaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Solanaceae, Myrtaceae, each 3, Anacardiaceae, Asteraceae, poaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Sterculiaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Zingiberaceae each 2, remaining families have each one single species. Depending upon the plant parts used leaf is 30, followed by root, fruit 15, and whole plant 14, and seed 12, bark 7, tuber 3, and flower 2, and husk, pulp, rhizome, stem, wood each one. Currently, many countries face large increases in the number of people suffering from diabetes. The World Health Organization estimated that about 30 million people suffered from diabetes in 1985 and the number increased to more than 171 million in 2000. It is estimated that the number will increase to over 366 million by 2030 and that large increases will occur in developing countries, especially in people aged between 45 and 64 years. In spite of the presence of known antidiabetic medicine in the pharmaceutical market, remedies from medicinal plants are used with success to treat this disease.
Plant Part Used
Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.
Acacia chundra (Rottler) Willd
Acampe praemorsa (Roxb.) Blatt. and McCann (1932)
Brittle tiger orchid
Acacia Arabica (Lam.) Willd.
Indian gum arabic
5,10,24,33, 35,38, 39, 47, 59
Anacardium occidentale L
Andrographis peniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.
King of bitter
Annona muricata L
Annona squamosa L
1,6,10, 24,27, 31,35, 39
Annona reticulate L
Asparagus racemosus Willd
Azadirachta indica A.Juss., 1830
Leaf, bark, seed, fruit
Balanites roxburghii Pianch
Barleria prionitis L
Bombax ceiba L
Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.
Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb.
Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T.Aiton
Capsicum annum L
Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.
Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze
Casearia esculenta Roxb
Holy Fruit Tree
Caralluma attenuate Wigh
Capparis deciduas (Forssk.) Edgew.
Cassia auriculata L
Corallocarpus epigaeus Benth and Hook.f
Coffea Arabica L
Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels
Coriandrum sativum L
Costus speciosus (J.Konig) C.Specht[
Commelina communis L
Curcuma pseudo montana Graham
Curcuma longa L
Cucumis sativus L
Cuminum nigrum L
Cyamospsis tetragonolobus (L.) Taub.
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Datura quercifolia Kunth
Datura metel L
Dillenia indica L
Eclipta alba L
Eugenia jambolana Lam
12, 24, 25, 51
Euphorbia antiquorum L
3, 12, 32,36, 38, 50
Euphorbia prostrate Aiton
Eupatorium odoratum (L.) King and H.E. Robins.
Root , leaf
Ferula assa-foetida L
Ficus bengalensis L
Bark , Leaf
Ficus religiosa L
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.
Gymnea sylvestre R. Br.
Heliotropium indicum L
Hedyotis biflora L
Hemidesmus indicus (L.)R.Br
Hordeum vulgare L
Hugonia mystax L
Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T.Aiton
Indigofera arrecta Hochst
Jatropha curcas L
Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers
Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.)
Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob.
Limonia acidissima L
Mangifera indica L
Magnolia champaca (L.) Baill. ex Pierre
Mentha spicata L
Memecylon scutellatum (Lour.) Hook. and Arn.
Momordica charantia L
Moringa oleifera Lam.
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.
Murraya koeningii (L.) Spreng
Nymphaea pubescens Willd.
Ocimum gratissimum (L)
Ocimum sanctum Linn
Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn
Piper nigrum L.
Plantago ovate Forssk.
Rauvolfia serpentine (L.) Benth. ex Kurz.
Saccharum officinarum L
Strychnos nux-vomica L
Spinacia oleracea L
Swietenia mahagoni (L)Jacq
West Indian mahagony
Syzygium cumini (L.)
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder. It is predicted that the number will increase to over 366 million by the year 2030 and also this number will increase in developing countries. In the present review an attempt has been made to investigate the antidiabetic medicinal plants used in Andhra Pradesh, India. This review article may be useful to the professionals, scientists and scholars working in the field of pharmacology and therapeutics to develop antidiabetic drugs. Hence medicinal plants are the best alternative for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The attributed antihyperglycemic effects of these plants are due to their ability to restore the function of pancreatic tissues by causing an increase in insulin output or a decrease in the intestinal absorption of glucose. Hence, treatment with herbal drugs has an effect on protecting -cells and smoothing out fluctuation in glucose levels. In general, there is very little biological knowledge on the specific modes of action in the treatment of diabetes, but most of the plants have been found to contain substances like glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids etc. that are frequently implicated as having antidiabetic effects. The research for alternate remedies (from the plant kingdom) for diabetes mellitus will continue all over the world as the disease poses many challenges not only to the physician but also to the researcher.
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