Keywords

Antidiuretic medicine, Medicinal plants, Diabetes, Andhra Pradesh.

Introduction

Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder caused by absolute insufficient or inefficient insulin secretion and it is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus or insulindependent diabetes, or early-onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes, ketone-prone diabetes: It can occur in any age but mostly seen in young adult. It is an immune mediated disease resulting from immunological destruction in β-cells of pancreas which leads to insufficient production of insulin. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent or adult-onset diabetes: It is most common type affecting elderly and obese caused either by insulin resistance or deficient insulin secretion leading to hyperglycemia. It accounts for more than 80% of total case of diabetes and affects 18% of the population above 65 years of age, usually occurs in obese individuals. These individuals have normal or even greatly elevated insulin levels Gestational Diabetes mellitus: This type first recognize during the time of pregnancy where hyperglycemic condition develops in women who doesn’t have diabetes result from an insufficient insulin supply to meet tissue demand for normal blood glucose regulation. This problem usually clears up after birth of child, but have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Diabetes mellitus is a rapidly emerging medical problem. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), more than 371 million people across the globe have diabetes and this figure is predicted to increase to over 550 million by 2030.Traditional medicines derived mainly from plants play major role in the management of diabetes mellitus .Interest in herbal drugs is growing due to their efficiency, low toxicity and absence of side effects.

Review Result & Discussion

In the view of above advantages the present review provides profile of 92 plants belongs to 81 genera and 51 families used to treat diabetes. For each species of medicinal plants scientific name, common name, family and the parts of the medicinal plant used to treat Diabetes mellitus are provided. The most dominant families in the study were Apiaceous, Euphorbiaceous, Leguminosae each 4, Acanthaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepidaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Solanaceae, Myrtaceae, each 3, Anacardiaceae, Asteraceae, poaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Sterculiaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Zingiberaceae each 2, remaining families have each one single species. Depending upon the plant parts used leaf is 30, followed by root, fruit 15, and whole plant 14, and seed 12, bark 7, tuber 3, and flower 2, and husk, pulp, rhizome, stem, wood each one. Currently, many countries face large increases in the number of people suffering from diabetes. The World Health Organization estimated that about 30 million people suffered from diabetes in 1985 and the number increased to more than 171 million in 2000. It is estimated that the number will increase to over 366 million by 2030 and that large increases will occur in developing countries, especially in people aged between 45 and 64 years. In spite of the presence of known antidiabetic medicine in the pharmaceutical market, remedies from medicinal plants are used with success to treat this disease.

Ethnomedicinal plants Used for antidiabetic in Andhra Pradesh

Scientific Name Common Name Family Plant Part Used Reference
Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. Ambrette seeds Malvaceae Root 10, 35
Acacia chundra (Rottler) Willd Red catechue Mimosaceae Stem, bark 46
Acampe praemorsa (Roxb.) Blatt. and McCann (1932) Brittle tiger orchid Orchidaceae Plant 41
Acacia Arabica (Lam.) Willd. Indian gum arabic Leguminosae Seeds 5,10,24,33, 35,38, 39, 47, 59
Acalypha alnifolia Poiret’s Copperleaf Euphorbiaceae Leaf 50
Anacardium occidentale L Jidi mamidi Anacardiaceae Leaf 31,33,37,39
Andrographis peniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. King of bitter Acanthaceae Whole plant 1,10,12,24,25,43,47
Annona muricata L custard apple Annonaceae Leaf 31,37,35
Annona squamosa L Sugar apple Annonaceae Leaf, Bark 1,6,10, 24,27, 31,35, 39
Annona reticulate L Custard apple Annonaceae Leaf 25
Asparagus racemosus Willd Satavari Asparagaceae Plant 25,49
Asteracantha longifolia Kulikhara Acanthaceae 28
Azadirachta indica A.Juss., 1830 Neem Meliaceae Leaf, bark, seed, fruit 1,4,10,18,24, 25,36,37,49
Balanites roxburghii Pianch Desert date Zygophyllaceae. 5,47
Barleria prionitis L Porcupine flower Acanthaceae Leaf, root 38
Bombax ceiba L Cotton tree Bombacaceae Root 28,44
Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. Buganvilla Nyctaginaceae Leaf 31,39
Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb. Gray Nicker Caesalpiniaceae Seed 17,39,51
Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T.Aiton Jilledu Asclepiadaceae Root 43
Capsicum annum L Chilli pepper Solanaceae Fruit 24
Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. Jack bean Leguminosae Seed 31
Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Green tea Theaceae Leaf 24,39
Casearia esculenta Roxb Holy Fruit Tree Flacourtiaceae Fruit 24,31
Caralluma attenuate Wigh Kallimulaiyaam Apocynaceae Whole plant 3
Capparis deciduas (Forssk.) Edgew. Kerda Capparaceae Whole plant 33,38,51
Cassia auriculata L Tanner’s cassia Leguminosae Flower 24,39
Corallocarpus epigaeus Benth and Hook.f Nagadonda Cucurbitaceae Fruit 12,28,30
Coffea Arabica L Coffee Rubiaceae Seed 25
Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels Duseratiga Menispermaceae Root 43
Coriandrum sativum L Coriander Apiaceae Seed 31
Costus speciosus (J.Konig) C.Specht[ Keukand Costaceae Leaves, rhizome 24,28
Commelina communis L Asiatic dayflower Commelinaceae Leaf 3
Curcuma pseudo montana Graham Hill turmeric Zingiberaceae Tuber
Curcuma longa L Turmeric Zingiberaceae Tuber 1,43
Cucumis sativus L Cucumber Cucurbitaceae Fruit 1,13
Cuminum nigrum L Cumin Apiaceae Seed 25
Cyamospsis tetragonolobus (L.) Taub. Guar plant Fabaceae Fruit 24
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Durva grass Poaceae Whole plant 28
Daucus Wild carrot Apiaceae Root, Leaf 36,49
Carota L
Datura quercifolia Kunth Oak-leaf thorn-apple Solanaceae Seed 49
Datura metel L Devil’s trumpet Solanaceae Bark, leaf 5,32,47
Dillenia indica L Elephant apple Dilleniaceae Fruit 28
Dioscorea dumetorum Quinim Dioscoreaceae Plant 25
Eclipta alba L False daisy Asteraceae Leaf 10,31
Enicostemma littorale Nelagolinidi Gentianaceae Whole plant 39
Eugenia jambolana Lam Jambolan Myrtaceae Seed, pulp 12, 24, 25, 51
Euphorbia antiquorum L Bomajemudu Euphorbiaceae Leaves 3, 12, 32,36, 38, 50
Euphorbia prostrate Aiton Prostrate sandmat Euphobeaceae Leaf 11,39
Eupatorium odoratum (L.) King and H.E. Robins. Bitter Bush Asteraceae Root , leaf 5,47
Ferula assa-foetida L Devil’s Dung Apiaceae Whole plant 5,47
Ficus bengalensis L Indian banyan Moraceae Bark , Leaf 5,47
Ficus religiosa L Raavi Moraceae Fruit 2,12,27,43,47,49
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Guacima Sterculiaceae Bark 43
Gymnea sylvestre R. Br. Podapatri Asclepiadaceae Leaf 2,17,25,28,33,37,39,46,49,51,52
Helicteres isora Godratada Sterculiaceae Root 2,17,38
Heliotropium indicum L Naga banthi Boraginaceae Leaf 39,49
Hedyotis biflora L Kaddok nakalinga Rubiaceae Whole plant 49
Hemidesmus indicus (L.)R.Br Indian Asclepiadaceae Root 5,12,21,24,25,47
Hordeum vulgare L Barley Poaceae Fruit ,seed 5, 39,41,47
Hugonia mystax L Modirakanni Linaceae Root 43
Hybanthus enneaspermus Ratna purusha Violaceae Whole plant 9,15
Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) W.T.Aiton Black creeper Apocynaceae Leaf 15
Indigofera arrecta Hochst Fabaceae Leaf 38
Jatropha curcas L Pedda nepalamu Euphorbiaceae 5,42,47
Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers Miracle Leaf Crassulaceae Leaf 1
Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Varagogu Lythraceae Leaf 49
Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob. Soft bollygum Lauraceae Fruit 25
Limonia acidissima L Wood-apple Rutaceae Root 38
Mangifera indica L Mango Anacardiaceae Leaf 5,24,25,28,33,38,39,49
Magnolia champaca (L.) Baill. ex Pierre Champak Magnoliaceae Flower 25
Mentha spicata L Spear mint Lamiaceae Whole plant 25
Memecylon scutellatum (Lour.) Hook. and Arn. Gumushu Melastomataceae Fruit 25
Momordica charantia L Bitter gourd Cucurbitaceae Fruit 1,16,17,24,26,33,36,38,39,50
Moringa oleifera Lam. Drumstick tree Moringaceae Fruit 25
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Dulagondi Leguminosae Seed 39
Murraya koeningii (L.) Spreng Karepaku Rutaceae Leaf 1,2,25,37, 45
Nymphaea pubescens Willd. Pink water-lily Nymphaeaceae 48
Ocimum gratissimum (L) Nimmathulasi Lamiaceae Leaf 5,47,50
Ocimum sanctum Linn Tulsi Lamiaceae Whole plant 17,24,25,49,51
Pandanus odorus Mogali Pandanaceae Root 39
Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn Kodo millet Poaceae Seed 23,28,38,39
Picrorrhiza kurroa Kutki Scrophulariaceae Rhizome 3
Piper nigrum L. Miriyalu Piperaceae Whole plant 25
Plantago ovate Forssk. Desert Indianwheat Plantaginaceae Husk 31
Rauvolfia serpentine (L.) Benth. ex Kurz. Sarpagandhi Apocynaceae Root 46,47
Rubus fruticosus Blackberry Rosaceae Bark 1
Saccharum officinarum L Cheruku Gramineae Root 31
Strychnos nux-vomica L Mushti Clusiaceae Wood 43
Spinacia oleracea L Spinach Amaranthaceae Leaf 1
Swietenia mahagoni (L)Jacq West Indian mahagony Meliaceae Seed 49
Syzygium alternifolium Manchimogi Myrtacea Fruit 4,25,34
Syzygium cumini (L.) Nerudu Myrtacea Seed 1,2,17,27,31,36,39,49,60

Conclusion

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder. It is predicted that the number will increase to over 366 million by the year 2030 and also this number will increase in developing countries. In the present review an attempt has been made to investigate the antidiabetic medicinal plants used in Andhra Pradesh, India. This review article may be useful to the professionals, scientists and scholars working in the field of pharmacology and therapeutics to develop antidiabetic drugs. Hence medicinal plants are the best alternative for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The attributed antihyperglycemic effects of these plants are due to their ability to restore the function of pancreatic tissues by causing an increase in insulin output or a decrease in the intestinal absorption of glucose. Hence, treatment with herbal drugs has an effect on protecting -cells and smoothing out fluctuation in glucose levels. In general, there is very little biological knowledge on the specific modes of action in the treatment of diabetes, but most of the plants have been found to contain substances like glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids etc. that are frequently implicated as having antidiabetic effects. The research for alternate remedies (from the plant kingdom) for diabetes mellitus will continue all over the world as the disease poses many challenges not only to the physician but also to the researcher.