There are many factors that influence the production of silk among which the activity of enzyme plays a significant role in enhancing the digestibility of silkworm larva this in turn influences the growth, development and resistance to disease in silkworm and subsequently enable the silkworm to produce good qualified cocoon and silk. In recent years research interest is currently directed towards the activities of digestive enzymes like amylase, succinate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and alkaline protease which will help in silkworm breeding programme for improvement of cocoon characters and disease resistance. Hence in the present investigation an attempt is made to study the impact fortification of mulberry leaf with probiotic microorganism saccharomyces cerevisiae on the enzymatic profile and the quantitative economic parameters of silkworm Bombyx mori. The results indicate that there is profound increasein the activity of the amylase and invertase in the digestive juice of the probiotic treated worms than the control with enhanced immunity and quality silk production.
Enteric bacteria are assumed to exist in fresh water bodies under starving conditions with growth being limited primarily by the non-availability of a suitable carbon sources. Although this assumption is the basis for the use of selected enteric bacteria as faecal pollution indicators, there is evidence to indicate that limited enteric bacterial growth may occur in particular river water. enterobacteriaceae , however not only contain bacteria which serve as indicators of feacal pollution, but also contain others, such as Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Vibrio sp., and Arizona sp., that can produce serious intestinal diseases. The relationship between the various environmental parameters like pH, salinity, and the count of E.coli has been studied. It was found that pH is an insignificant parameter because much variation in pH has not been observed between water samples of river.
AIDS is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The late stage of the condition leaves individuals prone to opportunistic infections and tumors. Although treatments for AIDS and HIV exist to slow the virus’s progression, there is no known cure. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the blood stream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid and breast milk .Most researchers believe that HIV originated in sub–Saharan Africa during the twentieth century, it is now pandemic, with an estimated 38.6 million people now living with the disease worldwide. As of January 2006, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized on June 5, 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. In 2005 alone, AIDS claimed an estimated 2.4–3.3 million lives, of which more than 570,000 were children. A third of these deaths are occurring in sub-Saharan Africa, retarding economic growth and destroying human capital. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries. The absorption of drugs through the transdermal route improves bioavailability of drugs that might otherwise be metabolized by first-pass effect (pre- systemic drug elimination) during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Drug absorption from the transdermal route is mainly via passive diffusion through the lipoidal membrane. Thus, transdermal route of drug delivery has attracted the attention worldwide for optimizing the drug delivery
The present review evaluates the medicinal plants used for antidiabetic activity in North coastal Andhra Pradesh, India. This review enumerates 100 plants belongs to 58 families used to treat Diabetes mellitus. It clearly shows the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present review profile gives information about ethnomedicinal plants scientific name, common name, family and the parts of the plant used to treat Diabetes mellitus.
Background: Hepatotoxicity is historically the 3rd most common reason for ART toxicity related discontinuation. Liver toxicity generates medical visit, work plan exams, and frequent hospital admissions all of which increases expenses. In addition, hepatotoxicity hampers the maintenance of HIV suppressions over time. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatotoxicity and identify the major predictors that may cause hepatotoxicity in Adama hospital, Adama City, Oromiya; Ethiopia.
Methods: A case-control study was conducted by reviewing charts of TB/HIV co- infected patients. All Patients on HAART and TB treatment and in ART follow up clinic of Adama Hospital of the last two years were included in the study. A total of 105 patients’ charts were included in the study considering a 4 to 1 control to case proportion. A systematic random sampling method was used to collect data from patients’ chart.
Results: Of the total 105 patients included in the study, 21(20%) were developed hepatotoxicity. Fifty four (51.43%) of the participants were females. The mean CD4 count of the patients was 205.1 + 96.18 cells/µL and ranges from the lowest count of 51 cells/µl to the highest recorded count of 559 cells/ul. The most frequent anti-TB regimen prescribed was 2(INH, RIF, ETM, PZA)/4(INH, RIF). Ninety five (90.5 %) of the participants were on the primarily prophylactic drugs. Of this figure, 49(46.7%) were on cotrimoxazole. Relatively more female patients 12(57.1%) were vulnerable for the development of hepatotoxicity. Most of the patients who had developed hepatotoxicity were on WHO clinical stage 3. Social drug use was significantly associated with development of hepatotoxicity (P=.005) with a 95% CI (0.01-311). Patients on TDF/3TC/EFV (OR= 121.7, P=.010) and D4T/3TC/NVP (OR= 47.4, P=.009) ART regimen were found to be more prone to develop hepatotoxicity compared to patients on D4T/3TC/NVP regimen and similarly patients on 2(ERHZ)/4(RH) anti-TB regimen (OR= 575.96, P=.002) with a 95% CI (0.02-3.8), was found to be more prone to develop hepatotoxicity compared to the other types anti-Tb regimens. Spearman correlation analysis of age, weight and/or CD4 count with of hepatotoxicity showed no statistical association.
Conclusions: The prevalence of hepatotoxicity in TB/HIV coinfected patients can be due to a number of factors among which sex, the WHO clinical staging, use of Social drugs, type of ART regimen and type of anti-TB regimen are the major, according to the findings of this study.
Population of Sargassum ilicifolium(Turner) C.Ag. was observed throughout the year in the two areas studied i.e., in and around Visakhapatnam coast. Young and erect fronds are developed from the perennial holdfast in the month of March/April. Rapid increase in the mean length of erect fronds was observed from May onwards and they attain maximum size in November/December and January. Fertile fronds were found for a short duration in a year i.e., from October onwards at Gangavaram and Pudimadaka. The percentage of fruiting plants varied during the fruiting season and maximum number of fertile plants were found in the month of December/January. The liberation of oospores was observed from the first day onwards and increased from day two with peak output on day four and no liberation of oospores was observed after sixteenth day. The maximum shedding of oospores was seen during December/January every year coinciding with the peak growth. The germination rate of oospores was also higher in December/January than in other months of the year
Shivnath River is main river of Durg Bhilai region. Present investigations elucidate the abundance and composition of phytoplankton in the river water at Durg during different seasons. Results are indicative of a wide range of seasonal fluctuations in quality and quantity of phytoplankton. A total of 37 phytoplankton genera were observed with most dominant being Closterium, Diatoma, Synedra, Nitzschia, Phormidium and Nevicula. The order of abundance of various phytoplankton group to be find Chlorophytes > Diatoms> Cyanophytes> Desmids. The occurrence of pollution indicating genera confirms heavy pollution of Shivnath River.