Background: Caustic ingestion has a wide range of gastrointestinal injuries form mild to severely fatal complications leading to long-term chronic diseases. Since simultaneous rapid use of various methods is difficult or sometimes impossible for determination of need to urgent surgery, initial use of arterial blood gas (ABG) in patients with caustic ingestion may be useful to determine the severity of the injury. Accordingly in this study the ABG data were assessed and compared with endoscopy and laparatomy results to determine the predictive value of ABG. Patients and methods: In this retrospective study 274 consecutive patients with caustic injury attending to Loghman Hospital, Tehran, Iran since 2006 to 2013 were enrolled. Patients included two groups; under surgery and under conservative treatments. In second group, the interval between endoscopy and surgery with arrival time was assessed. Also the initial findings of ABG before treatment, and also the endoscopy and burning grading were determined and compared. Results: The pH and BE alterations were significantly differed between died and alive patients (P=0.001). The endoscopic grading was reversely correlated with HCO3 (P=0.043, r= – 0.274). Also the pH (P=0.041, r= – 0.254) and pCO2 (P=0.006, r= – 0.0342) were reversely correlated to laparatomy grading. Conclusions: Totally, according to the obtained results, it may be concluded that ABG alterations in patients with caustic injuries would result in faster appropriate decision-making for surgery need. For this matter pH less than 7.2 and BE changes more than fifty percent would show the more severe injury that require urgent surgery.
Heavy metals resistant bacteria were obtained from wastewater samples in mining sites of Itogon, Benguet, Philippines. The isolates were cultured in a medium with different concentrations of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb). Out of the 150 initial isolates, the 4 isolates, which survived in each 100 ppm of Zn, Cr, Pb, and Ni exhibited high metal resistance and were identified at the Philippine Genome Center (UP Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines) as isolates A). Acinetobacter sp. junii, B). Acinetobacter sp. tandoii, C). Bacillus cereus, D). Bacillus toyonensis. Sample digestion with HCl showed higher heavy metal reduction results compared with the undigested, thus suggesting that acid treatment gave better extraction of metal components prior to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Biosorption of heavy metals were highest in 75 ppm of lead. Results showed that the isolate Bacillus toyonensis can reduce lead by 92.43 % in 5 days at room temperature.