Volume 1 – Issue 1

Title : Use of arterial blood gas to determine the severity of  sophageal and gastric injury in caustic ingestion cases
Authors : Esmaeil Hajinasrollah,Mohammad Hadizadeh,Hadi Mirhashmi,Hasan Peyvandi,Mohsen Souri,Ghazal Hajinasrollah

Background: Caustic ingestion has a wide range of gastrointestinal injuries form mild to severely fatal complications leading to long-term chronic diseases. Since simultaneous rapid use of various methods is difficult or sometimes impossible for determination of need to urgent surgery, initial use of arterial blood gas (ABG) in patients with caustic ingestion may be useful to determine the severity of the injury. Accordingly in this study the ABG data were assessed and compared with endoscopy and laparatomy results to determine the predictive value of ABG. Patients and methods: In this retrospective study 274 consecutive patients with caustic injury attending to Loghman Hospital, Tehran, Iran since 2006 to 2013 were enrolled. Patients included two groups under surgery and under conservative treatments. In second group, the interval between endoscopy and surgery with arrival time was assessed. Also the initial findings of ABG before treatment, and also the endoscopy and burning grading were determined and compared. Results: The pH and BE alterations were significantly differed between died and alive patients (P=0.001). The endoscopic grading was reversely correlated with HCO3 (P=0.043, r= – 0.274). Also the pH (P=0.041, r= – 0.254) and pCO2 (P=0.006, r= – 0.0342) were reversely correlated to laparatomy grading. Conclusions: Totally, according to the obtained results, it may be concluded that ABG alterations in patients with caustic injuries would result in faster appropriate decision-making for surgery need. For this matter pH less than 7.2 and BE changes more than fifty percent would show the more severe injury that require urgent surgery.

Keywords : Caustic Ingestion , Grading , Arterial Blood Gas
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Title : Phytochemical, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant activities of leaf extracts of Aristolochia indica (Linn.)
Authors : Saraswati Maharana,Sunita Bhatnagar

Aristolochia indica is a popular medicinal plant in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India. Plant is collected from the wild for its medicinal usage, in the present study medicinal potential of cultivated medicinal plant under standard conditions was explored. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of flavonoids and tannins like important class of compounds, where as leaf extracts of the plant showed cytotoxic as well as antioxidant potential using brine shrimp mortality and DPPH radical scavenging assays. Acetone extract of the plant showed best cytotoxic and antioxidant potential amongst all the extracts.

Keywords :Aristolochia indica , DPPH , brine shrimp mortality assay , antioxidant
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Title : A Review on Ethnomedicinal Plants used for Antidiabetic medicine in Andhra Pradesh.
Authors : S. B. Padal,N. Mary Roja,S. Devi Soundarya

Diabetes is one of the major diseases in India. The present review is attempts to enumerate the list of the plants used for antidiabetic medicine in Andhra Pradesh, India. The herbal medicine have been esteemed source of medicine hence medicinal plants growing concern in current days due to low toxicity and absence of side effects. The World Health Organization (WHO) says about 65-80% of the world’s population of developing countries depends on plants and plant derived compounds for their primary healthcare needs. In the view of above advantages the present review provides profile of 92 plants belongs to 51 families used to treat diabetes described. This clearly shows the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes.

Keywords : Antidiuretic medicine , Medicinal plants , Diabetes , Andhra Pradesh.
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Title : Evaluation of arch dimensional changes after orthodontic treatment in extraction and non-extraction cases. An in-vitro study
Authors : S Narayanan,C Sabarigirinathan,K Vinayagavel,P Rupkumar,M Kanmani,K Venkata Seetha Lakshmi

Orthodontic treatment for malocclusion correction may involve extraction or non-extraction of specified teeth for esthetic and functional harmony. Antero-posterior and transverse arch dimensional changes following orthodontic treatment has been evaluated using many methods. The present study evaluated the arch dimensional changes after orthodontic treatment in extraction and non-extraction cases using AUTO CAD system with medial and lateral edges of 3rd primary rugae and mesio-incisal tip of the most prominent incisor as the reference points. A total of 100 (Group 1- Upper bicuspid extraction=50, Group 2- Non-extraction=50) orthodontically treated cases were selected in the age range of 19-25 years (Males=50, Females=50). Their pre and post treatment study models were collected and photographed. The photographic data was then digitized and arch dimensional changes were measured using AUTO CAD. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses using Paired t-test, Unpaired t-test, Levene’s test and Gain score measurement test. There were significant antero-posterior tooth movements in extraction cases when compared to non extraction cases, a significant reduction in the intermolar width after premolar extractions but minimal changes in the intercanine width showing significance at 5% level. In non-extraction cases, there was no significant arch dimensional changes after orthodontic treatment in both intermolar and intercanine region. Maximum antero-posterior arch dimensional changes can be seen in orthodontically treated bicuspid extraction cases and non extraction cases show minimal changes in the antero-posterior dimensions even after orthodontic treatment. Significant amount of anchorage loss can be seen in upper bicuspid extraction cases when compared to non extraction cases. Reduction in the intermolar width and contraction of maxillary arch occurred in upper bicuspid extraction cases with minimal changes in the intercanine width. Minimal transverse arch dimensional changes occurred in non-extraction cases after orthodontic treatment.

Keywords :Arch width changes , extraction Vs non-extraction
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Title : To Study Oil Control Property of Parsley Leaf Extract in Cosmetic Products
Authors : Sangeeta Sahasrabuddhe

Skin is a protective covering and an attractive feature for both men and women. It forms an important part of personal appearance. But Oily skin can be a challenge. It is usually seen on thicker, larger pored skin and contributes to blemishes.The Parsley leaves extract (juice) is used in this project to study oil control property. The latin name used for parsley (Petroselinum hortense), is formed from two Greek words: “petros” which means “stone” and “selinon” which means “celery. It is important to mention that parsley contains more vitamin C than lemon, orange or any other fruit ie more than 50mg/100g of Parsley. It has abundant quantities of other vitamins and minerals such as: pro vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin E, vitamin K, beta-carotene, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, sodium, potassium, sulfur and calcium. Parsley has long been widely used in cosmetics to freshen the face, discoloration, freckles and dark age spots, wrinkles and prevent the occurrence of red spots, strengthen and grow hair. The Cleanser base was selected with the 2% and 4% concentrations of the active which then subjected to its in-vivo study in order to evaluate its oil control property using Sebometer. The 4% concentration of parsley leaf extract was found to be effective oil controlling agent.

Keywords : Skin , Parsley leaves , oil control , Cleanser base , Sebometer.
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Title : Clinical Evaluation of Gokshura Species in Mutrakrichchra (Dysuria)
Authors : Gajendra Kumar Sharma

Infection of the urinary tract is the second commonest site after respiratory tract infection. It is more frequent in women than men. Almost 50% women suffer UTI. In our classical texts, urinary tract infection is described as Mutrakruchcha. The great Acharya Charak has mentioned it in Chikitsa sthana, Trimarmiya adhyay, its 8 types and Basti as a Marma. For the treatment of all types of Mutrakruchcha, Gokshur is mentioned. In samhita period we find reference only for this Laghu Gokshura‛. But for the first time we find in Rajanighantu reference for Brihat Gokshura also called ‚Gokshur dvaya‛. Botanically Laghu Gokkshura is called Tribulus terrestris of Zygophyllaceae family and Brihat gokshura is called Pedalium murex belonging to family Pedaliaceae. These are classified under mishrak varga as ‘Dashmoola’. Gokshur is diuretic, aphrodisiac, tonic and rejuvenating herb with the ability to build lean muscle and strength. Brihat gokshur is mentioned to improve urogenital health. Gokshur possess Madhur rasa, Madhur vipaka and sheet Virya which causes diuresis by  increasing Kleda in the body. Due to the visual similarities of the two fruits and their traditional interchanging in Goshukra formulas remarkable difference in there therapeutic properties is not so far studied. So in this study 20 patients complaining of mutrakriccha were assessed by giving laghu Gokshur decoction and brihat gokshur decoction in the dosage of 15 ml twice daily orally. Assessment was done on the basis of sign and symptoms like Mutra daha (burning micturition), Sashula mutrapravruti (painful micturition), Bastishul (suprapubic pain), Mutrapravruti (frequency of micturition), appearance of the urine, Sarakta mutrapravruti (haematuria), Sapuya mutrapravruti (pyuria).

Keywords : Mutrakruchcha , Gokshur , Dysuria , Tribulus terrestris
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Title : Impact of Probiotic Saccharomyces Cerevisiae on The Enzymatic Profile and The Economic Parameters of Silkworm Bombyx Mori L
Authors : C. Esaivani,K. Vasanthi,R. Bharathi,K. Chairman

There are many factors that influence the production of silk among which the activity of enzyme plays a significant role in enhancing the digestibility of silkworm larva this in turn influences the growth, development and resistance to disease in silkworm and subsequently enable the silkworm to produce good qualified cocoon and silk. In recent years research interest is currently directed towards the activities of digestive enzymes like amylase, succinate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and alkaline protease which will help in silkworm breeding programme for improvement of cocoon characters and disease resistance. Hence in the present investigation an attempt is made to study the impact fortification of mulberry leaf with probiotic microorganism saccharomyces cerevisiae on the enzymatic profile and the quantitative economic parameters of silkworm Bombyx mori. The results indicate that there is profound increasein the activity of the amylase and invertase in the digestive juice of the probiotic treated worms than the control with enhanced immunity and quality silk production.

Keywords : Sericulture , Bombyx mori , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Enzymatic assay , economic parameters
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Title : Crystallization of Gastric Mucosa in Patients with Ulcer Disease
Authors : Andrew K. Martusevich,Zhanna G. Simonova

We investigated crystallogenic and initiated properties of gastric mucosa and gastric mucosal homogenates in 12 healthy peoples and 30 patients with ulcer disease (12 patients also have bleeding or perforation or penetration). It is stated, that cocontamination of Helicobacter pylori and Providencia or Morganella combines with high crystallogenic properties of biological fluids. It may be useful for ulcer disease pathogenesis investigation

Keywords : Pathogenic Symbiosis , Microorganism-Associated Crystallogenesis , Ulcer Disease
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Title : Genetic Evaluation and Screening of Donors in ADPKD
Authors : Santhosh Pai B.H,Nischith Dsouza,C.P.Abdulla Yasser,Swarnalatha Guditi,Jagadeesh T

Transplantation is the treatment of choice for ESRD patients in ADPKD if there are no contraindications to Surgery or Immunosuppression. Routine pre transplant evaluation for colonic diverticula or intracranial aneurysm is not required in asymptomatic subjects. Nephrectomy is not routinely indicated in ADPKD patient. It is restricted to patients with a history of recurrent cyst infection , recurrent major bleeding ,complicated lithiasis , severe Hypertension ,or massive renal enlargement ,concomitant with renal transplantation When living related donor is considered a screening test should be done to completely eliminate the possibility that the donor will develop ADPKD in future .For potential donors aged older than 30 years ultrasound abdomen is sufficient for screening , whereas in potential donor aged younger than 30 years absence of cyst will not exclude the development of ADPKD. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may be used for such patients in renal cyst detection. Genetic linkage analysis is a highly sensitive method and is used in donor screening if imaging studies fail.

Keywords : ADPKD , Genetic Evaluation
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Title : Isolation and Identification of Bacterieas from the River Connected With Thermal Power Plant of Korba Chhattisgarh

Enteric bacteria are assumed to exist in fresh water bodies under starving conditions with growth being limited primarily by the non-availability of a suitable carbon sources. Although this assumption is the basis for the use of selected enteric bacteria as faecal pollution indicators, there is evidence to indicate that limited enteric bacterial growth may occur in particular river water. enterobacteriaceae , however not only contain bacteria which serve as indicators of feacal pollution, but also contain others, such as Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Vibrio sp., and Arizona sp., that can produce serious intestinal diseases. The relationship between the various environmental parameters like pH, salinity, and the count of E.coli has been studied. It was found that pH is an insignificant parameter because much variation in pH has not been observed between water samples of river.

Keywords : bacteria , diseases , pH , water samples , pollution
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Title : A Review on Ethanomedicinal Plants Having Antidiabetic Activity in North coastal Andhra Pradesh, India
Authors : Dr. S. B. Padal,Nakka Mary Rosa,Seekari Satyavani,B. Sadana,T. Nikitha

The present review evaluates the medicinal plants used for antidiabetic activity in North coastal Andhra Pradesh, India. This review enumerates 100 plants belongs to 58 families used to treat Diabetes mellitus. It clearly shows the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present review profile gives information about ethnomedicinal plants scientific name, common name, family and the parts of the plant used to treat Diabetes mellitus.

Keywords : Diabetes mellitus , Medicinal plants , Antidiabetic activity
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Title : An Introduction to the Transdermal Delivery of Antiretrovirals
Authors : Nripendra Singh, Ritu Singh, Vinay Verma

AIDS is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The late stage of the condition leaves individuals prone to opportunistic infections and tumors. Although treatments for AIDS and HIV exist to slow the virus’s progression, there is no known cure. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the blood stream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid and breast milk .Most researchers believe that HIV originated in sub–Saharan Africa during the twentieth century, it is now pandemic, with an estimated 38.6 million people now living with the disease worldwide. As of January 2006, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized on June 5, 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. In 2005 alone, AIDS claimed an estimated 2.4–3.3 million lives, of which more than 570,000 were children. A third of these deaths are occurring in sub-Saharan Africa, retarding economic growth and destroying human capital. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries. The absorption of drugs through the transdermal route improves bioavailability of drugs that might otherwise be metabolized by first-pass effect (pre- systemic drug elimination) during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Drug absorption from the transdermal route is mainly via passive diffusion through the lipoidal membrane. Thus, transdermal route of drug delivery has attracted the attention worldwide for optimizing the drug delivery.

Keywords : AIDS , Transdermal delivery , Enhancers , Patch etc
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Title : Seasonal growth, Reproduction, Spore Germination and Oospore shedding in Sargassum ilicifolium (Turner) C.Ag. of Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India
Authors : S. B. Padal,Danga Appa Rao,Gaddam Subbarangaiah

Population of Sargassum ilicifolium(Turner) C.Ag. was observed throughout the year in the two areas studied i.e., in and around Visakhapatnam coast. Young and erect fronds are developed from the perennial holdfast in the month of March/April. Rapid increase in the mean length of erect fronds was observed from May onwards and they attain maximum size in November/December and January. Fertile fronds were found for a short duration in a year i.e., from October onwards at Gangavaram and Pudimadaka. The percentage of fruiting plants varied during the fruiting season and maximum number of fertile plants were found in the month of December/January. The liberation of oospores was observed from the first day onwards and increased from day two with peak output on day four and no liberation of oospores was observed after sixteenth day. The maximum shedding of oospores was seen during December/January every year coinciding with the peak growth. The germination rate of oospores was also higher in December/January than in other months of the year.

Keywords : Seasonal growth , Reproduction , Spore Germination , Oospore shedding , Sargassum ilicifolium , Visakhapatnam coast , Andhra Pradesh
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Title : Phytoplankton Diversity and Seasonal Variations in the Shivnath River, Durg- Bhilai
Authors : Bhawana Pandey,Pratiksha Pandey

Shivnath River is main river of Durg Bhilai region. Present investigations elucidate the abundance and composition of phytoplankton in the river water at Durg during different seasons. Results are indicative of a wide range of seasonal fluctuations in quality and quantity of phytoplankton. A total of 37 phytoplankton genera were observed with most dominant being Closterium, Diatoma, Synedra, Nitzschia, Phormidium and Nevicula. The order of abundance of various phytoplankton group to be find Chlorophytes > Diatoms> Cyanophytes> Desmids. The occurrence of pollution indicating genera confirms heavy pollution of Shivnath River.

Keywords : Phytoplankton , Seasonal Variations , Shivnath River , Pollution
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Title : Assessment of the Prevalence of Hepatotoxicity among HIV/TB Co-infected Patients in Adama Referral Hospital, Adama, Ethiopia
Authors : Minyahil Alebachew Woldu,Henok Getaneh,Jimma Lenjisa,Gobezie Tegegne ,Gurmu Tesafye,Hunduma Dinsa

Background: Hepatotoxicity is historically the 3rd most common reason for ART toxicity related discontinuation. Liver toxicity generates medical visit, work plan exams, and frequent hospital admissions all of which increases expenses. In addition, hepatotoxicity hampers the maintenance of HIV suppressions over time. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatotoxicity and identify the major predictors that may cause hepatotoxicity in Adama hospital, Adama City, Oromiya, Ethiopia. Methods: A case-control study was conducted by reviewing charts of TB/HIV co- infected patients. All Patients on HAART and TB treatment and in ART follow up clinic of Adama Hospital of the last two years were included in the study. A total of 105 patients’ charts were included in the study considering a 4 to 1 control to case proportion. A systematic random sampling method was used to collect data from patients’ chart. Results: Of the total 105 patients included in the study, 21(20%) were developed hepatotoxicity. Fifty four (51.43%) of the participants were females. The mean CD4 count of the patients was 205.1 + 96.18 cells/µL and ranges from the lowest count of 51 cells/µl to the highest recorded count of 559 cells/ul. The most frequent anti-TB regimen prescribed was 2(INH, RIF, ETM, PZA)/4(INH, RIF). Ninety five (90.5 %) of the participants were on the primarily prophylactic drugs. Of this figure, 49(46.7%) were on cotrimoxazole. Relatively more female patients 12(57.1%) were vulnerable for the development of hepatotoxicity. Most of the patients who had developed hepatotoxicity were on WHO clinical stage 3. Social drug use was significantly associated with development of hepatotoxicity (P=.005) with a 95% CI (0.01-311). Patients on TDF/3TC/EFV (OR= 121.7, P=.010) and D4T/3TC/NVP (OR= 47.4, P=.009) ART regimen were found to be more prone to develop hepatotoxicity compared to patients on D4T/3TC/NVP regimen and similarly patients on 2(ERHZ)/4(RH) anti-TB regimen (OR= 575.96, P=.002) with a 95% CI (0.02-3.8), was found to be more prone to develop hepatotoxicity compared to the other types anti-Tb regimens. Spearman correlation analysis of age, weight and/or CD4 count with of hepatotoxicity showed no statistical association. Conclusions: The prevalence of hepatotoxicity in TB/HIV coinfected patients can be due to a number of factors among which sex, the WHO clinical staging, use of Social drugs, type of ART regimen and type of anti-TB regimen are the major, according to the findings of this study.

Keywords : Prevalence of Hepatotoxicity , HIV/TB Co infection , Adama Referral Hospital
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