Tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role on the progression and metastasis of tumors because of metabolic coupling and interaction between non-malignant cells in the TME and cancer cells. We have investigated the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), normal fibroblasts (NF) and adipocytes on the growth of breast carcinoma cells in vitro. Additionally, the anti-glycolytic effects of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb) (CA) on both conventional and reverse Warburg effects were studied in the monocultures of CAF (CAF-05), NF (CCL-110), adipocytes (HPAd) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells and co-cultures of breast cancer cells with CAFs, NF and HPAd. CA was highly cytotoxic to CAF-05 and MCF-7 cell lines compared to CCL-110 and HPAd cell lines. CA inhibited ATP synthesis in monocultures and co-cultures, though the rate of inhibition is higher in co-cultures than MCF-7 monoculture. Although non-malignant cell lines (CAF-05, CCL-110 and HPAd) have lower levels of lactate synthesis than MCF-7 cells, inhibitory effect of CA is more pronounced in co-cultures of MCF-7 with CAF-05, CCL110 and HPAd cells, respectively than MCF-7 cells alone. Gene expression studies showed that although transcripts of glycolysis-associated genes HIF-1α, MCT1, MCT4, Caveolin-1 and GLUT1 were present in non-malignant monocultures, protein translation of these genes were absent. Treatment of co-cultures of MCF-7+CAF-05 and MCF-7+HPAd cells with supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger [Curcuma amada Roxb. (CA) – 5 mg/ml] down regulated MCT1, MCT4, and Caveolin-1 proteins. CA treatment also inhibited HIF-1α and GLUT1 protein expression in co-cultures of MCF-7+HPAd cells. These results indicate that CA inhibits both Warburg and reverse Warburg effects in TME.
Carcinoma of cervix is the most common cancer in Indian women and accounts for 20% of all malignant tumours in the females. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) account for 75-80%, adenocarcinoma 15-25%, and adenosquamous carcinomas 3-5% of cervical cancers.
Objectives: To study histopathology of carcinoma of cervix and to find out the incidence rate, most common type of the carcinoma of cervix and to find out age predilection in various types of carcinoma of cervix.
Material and Method: This study was undertaken in the department of pathology over a period of 2 years from May 2010 to April 2012. All Hysterectomy specimens and cervical biopsies were processed routinely and paraffin sections were taken and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) for microscopic examination. Tumours of the cervix were classified and studied according to WHO classification.
Results: The most frequent condition diagnosed on cervical biopsies and hysterectomy specimens were benign cervical polyp (66.3%), followed by carcinoma (23.7%) and squamous intraepithelial lesion (0.2%). Out of all benign cervical polyps, occurrence of adenomatous polyp was highest. Incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (19.6%) was more as compared to adenocarcinoma (3.7%). The mean age of the squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, squamous intraepithelial lesion and benign cervical polyp was 49.1 years, 43.5 years, 47.7 years and 44.6 years respectively.
Conclusion: Incidence of squamous cell carcinoma was more as compared to adenocarcinoma. Occurrence of malignant lesions was earlier during 4th decade as compared to benign cervical lesions.