Background: Bangladesh is facing a high burden of breast cancer disease. It is the 2nd leading cause of cancer death after cervical cancer. Delay in seeking treatment contributes in breast cancer patients’ presentation at the tertiary hospitals when cancer is at an advanced stage and leads to poor prognosis. Late presentation with advanced stage is the common feature of breast cancer patients of Bangladesh. Objectives: The main objective of this study is to explore factors associated with delay in seeking cancer treatment among breast cancer patients at a tertiary care Hospital. Methods: Cross sectional observational study was conducted in the Department of Surgery Rangpur Medical College Hospital, Rangpur from January 2013 to December 2014. Patients who admitted to surgery ward and fulfill inclusion criteria during our study period was included in this study. Sixty two patients with carcinoma breast were included in this study. Thorough search for personal information and reasons behind delayed presentation was made from the patients. Information regarding tumor stage at time of diagnosis was extracted from hospital records and involved pathologic and clinical data. The data was collected in a pre designed data collection sheet. Correlation between personal and social factors and delayed presentation were made to find out the factors responsible for delayed presentation. Results: 36% patients came within 3 months of noticing the lump in breast and 64% delayed more than 3 months. Among 62 patients 76% were from low socioeconomic class, 62% had no formal primary education and 74% took initial treatment from Homeopath and traditional healer. Significant association was found with these patient related factors and delayed presentation. Association was also found between delayed presentation and advanced stage of disease. Conclusion: The findings suggest that 64% women with breast cancer presented late and have significant effect on their disease prognosis. There is a great impact of patient factors (personal and social) on delayed presentation. To reduce patient delay community awareness, health education programs regarding breast cancer should be implemented for target women who are at higher risk of delay.
Carbon nanotubes(CNT) are allotropes of carbon with cylindrical nanostructures. They can be visualized as a sheet of carbon atoms rolled up into a tube with a diameter of around tens of nanometers. They have electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical properties. There are two types of CNTs, single walled CNTs and multi walled CNTs. The multiwalled CNTs are formed by several concentric layers of rolled graphite. It has good adsorption properties which can detect some chemicals and biological agents. It is used to transport drug as well as proteins, DNA, RNA, into cells. The carbon network of shell is considered to be a result of the arrangement of carbon atoms in graphite sheets. Some properties of CNTs such as ease of cellular uptake, high drug loading, thermal ablation, among others, render them useful for cancer therapy. Cancer is one of the most challenging diseases of modern times because its therapy involves distinguishing normal healthy cells from affected cells. CNTs may prove to be the Holy Grail in cancer therapy because phenomena such as EPR, allow CNTs to distinguish normal cells from affected ones,. Considerable work has been done on CNTs as drug delivery systems over the last two decades. However, concerns over certain issues such as biocompatibility and toxicity have been raised and warrant extensive research in this field.
The research aimed in the direction of five different medicinal plants (hydro alcoholics extract) to evaluate anticancer activity and cytotoxcity. The most important purpose of this study is to evaluate cytotoxicity of these medicinal plants with facilitate of MTT assay. Concentrations are prepared of each plant extracts which are 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 0.1 μg/ml, 0.01 μg/ml and 5-10×103 cells/ml are taken into each well which are exposed to different Concentrations of plant extracts crude and elute of column chromatography [CC] for 96 hrs and then treated with MTT and take absorbance at 570 nm. Standard drug was used for IC50 of Doxorubicin MCF-7 500nm, A549- 550nm, PA-1- 580nm.
Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and in some cases to metastasize.cancer is the Latin word for crab .The ancients used the word to mean malignancy because of the crab like tenacity.It is a mass of tissue formed as a result of abnormal, excessive, uncoordinated, autonomous and purposeless proliferation of cell. Hippocrates [460-377BC] coined the term karkinos for cancer of the breast.. Cancer cells in other words refuse to stop multiplying and continue to increase in number. It is the failure to stop multiplying which is the hallmark of a cancer. This they do even at the cost of other normal cells of the body which are starved to death for lack of nutrition. In Unani literature the basic cause of disease is change in akhlat with respect to their quality and quantity. When the black bile (sauda) deviates from its normal quantity and quality.
Mutations of germ-cell line TP53 gene are mainly reported in Li–Fraumeni syndrome(LFS). LFS-associated breast cancers are both hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive. The purpose of this study is presentation of one case of LFS, associated with familial hyperlipidemias. A 52-year-old woman referred to clinic of oncology with a pain in the left breast. Her pathology report showed that she had breast cancer and computed tomography scan showed no evidence of metastasis. Markers of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and p53 were positive, IHC3+ and Ki67 in 20% of cells. We report the first case of a LFS patient with breast cancer and familial hyperlipidemias in Iran who ER, PR, P53 and HER-2 markers for her are positive. Also it is probably that LFS-associated cancer and atherosclerosis diseases are related to each other
Background: A number of potentially malignant disorders like leukoplakia, erythroplakia, oral submucous fibrosis constitute a detectable pre-clinical phase of oral cancer. There is a high prevalence of these lesions in India, which is attributed to culture, ethnic, geographic factors, low socio-economic status and varying lifestyle factors. The genetic relation of these lesions is less studied. Blood groups play an important role in the immunogenetic system. Very few studies have been done in India to see the association between blood group and potentially malignant disorders. Hence the present study was under taken to assess the relationship between ABO Rh blood group and oral potentially malignant disorders. Materials and methods: 154 cases with oral potentially malignant disorders diagnosed based on the WHO criteria (1980) were included in the study. Patients reporting to M.S.Ramaiah Dental and Hospital, Bangalore and Kaiwara center (a peripheral outreach center) were included in the study after obtaining an informed consent. Information regarding sociodemographic details was collected using proforma and blood group was assessed using blood group kit with Rapid slide test method. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software11. Descriptive statistics and chi square test were used to find the correlation. Result: Out of 154 cases, 88(57.14%) were males and 66(42.86%) females. 84(54.5%) cases were leukoplakia, 2(1.3%) cases were erythroplakia, 53(34.4%) cases were OSMF and 15(9.7%) cases were with multiple oral potentially malignant disorders. 57(37.01%) of cases belonged to B+ve blood group followed by 37(20.43%) belonged to A+ve blood group. Conclusion: The cases with B +ve blood group were more susceptible for the development of oral potentially malignant disorders, followed by A+ve blood group.