Quercetin is one of the bioactive flavonoid isolated from the leaves of Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae). The isolated quercetin was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the combined efficacy of quercetin with standard chemotherapeutic drug tamoxifen also studied. The results showed greater reduction in the cell viability from the QuerTam group (quercetin with tamoxifen) than tamoxifen and quercetin alone group. The IC50 values of test compounds were determined as 2µM, 0.5µM and 1.8µM for quercetin, Quertam and tamoxifen respectively. An elevated induction of apoptosis was found in QuerTam treatment when compared to quercetin and tamoxifen alone. The combined efficacy of QuerTam showed significant inhibition of cell viability by decreasing Bcl-2 protein expression and inducing apoptosis. Flow cytometry revealed a decrease in normal cells and increasing pro and late apoptotic cells indicative of apoptosis induction, while fluorescence microscopy showed evidence of the induction of apoptosis and nuclear fragmentation. To summarize these results showed that quercetin enhances the MCF-7 cell sensitivity to tamoxifen, as demonstrated by the improvement in the anticancer therapy
Carcinoma of cervix is the most common cancer in Indian women and accounts for 20% of all malignant tumours in the females. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) account for 75-80%, adenocarcinoma 15-25%, and adenosquamous carcinomas 3-5% of cervical cancers.
Objectives: To study histopathology of carcinoma of cervix and to find out the incidence rate, most common type of the carcinoma of cervix and to find out age predilection in various types of carcinoma of cervix.
Material and Method: This study was undertaken in the department of pathology over a period of 2 years from May 2010 to April 2012. All Hysterectomy specimens and cervical biopsies were processed routinely and paraffin sections were taken and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) for microscopic examination. Tumours of the cervix were classified and studied according to WHO classification.
Results: The most frequent condition diagnosed on cervical biopsies and hysterectomy specimens were benign cervical polyp (66.3%), followed by carcinoma (23.7%) and squamous intraepithelial lesion (0.2%). Out of all benign cervical polyps, occurrence of adenomatous polyp was highest. Incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (19.6%) was more as compared to adenocarcinoma (3.7%). The mean age of the squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, squamous intraepithelial lesion and benign cervical polyp was 49.1 years, 43.5 years, 47.7 years and 44.6 years respectively.
Conclusion: Incidence of squamous cell carcinoma was more as compared to adenocarcinoma. Occurrence of malignant lesions was earlier during 4th decade as compared to benign cervical lesions.