Vitamin C is an antioxidant and free radical scavenger for human body. Consumption of Vita C as a nutrient in diet is recommended. Thermal process, environmental factors and pH can cause a negative impact on vitamin content in multivitamin formulation and juices due to physical and chemical instability. Vita C content varies with the age of lemon fruit from unripe to stale. The present paper aims towards content variability and stability studies under various storage conditions like temperature air and pH. Classical methodology like Iodatometric titration is an easy way to trace out the vitamin content in any source using potassium iodate with starch as external indicator. Fresh ripened lemon juice contained 36.5 mg/100ml Vita C, whereas unripened contains 74.6 mg/100ml. Thermal shock of higher degree can decrease the content but for preservation lower temperature was found less deteriorative and deleterious. Percent loss of vitamin were found higher, 56.52 at 80°C and 39.12, 34.8 and 26.3 at 60°C, 40°C and room temperature respectively. Lower temperature shows good retention of vitamin content in the juice so as the percent loss were found 21.9, 13.01 and 8.68 at 12°C , 0°C and -12°C respectively. Air treatments and pH attacks were found harmful for Vita C storage. Storage of it in open bottle in environment the amount was decrease up to with time of min. manipulation of ph using acids and bases also found to decrease the content.
Thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified and quantified in three different roasted plant foods (Zea mays, Dioscorea rotundata and Musa paradisiaca) using a rapid method involving microwave assisted saponification and simultaneous extraction followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and spectrofluorometric detection. The method applied had good recovery and repeatability characteristcs. With respect to raw samples, roasted samples had higher contamination levels with a maximum benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content of 0.6 µg kg-1 dry weight. Roasted Zea mays had the highest low molecular weight- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (LMW-PAH) load of 31.2 µg kg-1 dry weight, which may be due to the fact that the charred portions after roasting are not usually subjected to scrapping, an exercise which is usually carried out on other roasted plant foods. Anyways, PAHs exposure due to the consumption of roasted plant foods may not pose serious concerns for human health, especially as they are low in heavy molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs).
Cinnamon flavored Butter Milk was developed by addition of Cinnamon powder in Butter milk and investigating the proximate quality, textural characteristics, keeping quality and sensory attributes of the developed product. In our study carried out the variation in moisture, protein, fat and ash content, PH , Acidity and Specific Gravity. When compared to normal butter milk (without cinnamon) significant changes were observed in Cinnamon flavored Butter Milk. The organoleptic studies appearance, color, flavor, taste, mouth feel and overall acceptability were studied and overall acceptability was good for Cinnamon Flavored Butter milk. Furthermore we studied microbial studies such as total plate count (TPC), yeast and mould count, coliform and E.coli to evaluate the safety and keeping quality of the products. Antioxidant and iron chelating activity of the Cinnamon Flavored Butter milk was also determined. The Shelf life of Cinnamon Flavored Butter Milk was better compared to normal buttermilk and recommended for market exploration.
Lipid composition of four different plant products used as spices: Afromomum melegueta (small and big alligator peppers), Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Xylopic aethiopica (Ehiopian pepper) were analyzed for lipid composition. Crude fat levels ranged between 0.42 – 8.92 g/100g. SFA levels ranged from 17.5 – 50.0 % of total fatty acids. The most concentrated SFA in all the samples was C16:0 (12.0 – 26.1 %), with the highest level occurring in Afromomum melegueta. MUFA values were in the range of 17.3 – 33.6 %, highest MUFA was petroselinic fatty acid in big and small alligator peppers (17.2 and 16.5 % respectively). Among the PUFAs, C18:2 cis – 9, 12 (LA) had the highest concentrations in all the samples with a range of 27.5 – 52.7 %. In all the samples, n-6 PUFA constituted the largest group: 27.8 – 56.3 %. Phytosterol levels showed sitosterol as the most concentrated in all the samples (19.3 – 351 mg/100g). Phosphatidylcholine constituted the highest concentrated phospholipid in all the samples with values ranging between 2.60 – 27.4 mg/100g. Chi-square (X2) analysis showed that significant differences occurred at α = 0.05 among the quality parameters from the fatty acids except in MUFA/SFA, EPSI and PUFA/SFA ratios. The plant samples were generally low in total fatty acids, hence their consumption, as food sources may not result in the consumers consuming fats above the recommended healthy guidelines.
The present study is aimed to screen the selected grasses of South India for qualitative and quantitative mineral content. The results revealed that the grass species accumulate the major and minor elements at various concentrations. The concentration of macroelements were found to be 9503, 51360, 4650 and 3473 (ppm) of Ca, K, Mg and P respectively; and microelements were 40, 219, 2698, 261, 68 and 108 for B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn (ppm) respectively. 17% of ash content and 3826 cal/g of calorific value were found as the selected species. The levels of macro and micro elements of the grasses were determined by using ICP –OES. Elemental analysis studies of the grass species revealed that large amounts of major and minor elements were found rich in Fimbristylis cymosa and Scleria lithosperma, which may be suggested for livestock feeding.
Profenophos EC50 (curcuron 500 PRO) was used in the experiment with 20 concentration of pesticide in range of 0.01% to 1% to find out LC50 for the test plant Vigna radiata, L. grown under laboratory conditions. The parameter used to find out LC50 was germination percentage of seeds after 72 hours of pesticide treatment. The LC 50 is calculated where there is 50 % germination of seeds and was found to be 0.45% of profenofos. The LC 100 (Lethal Concentration) where all seeds failed to germinate was found to be 1% of pesticide concentration. The MAC (maximum allowable concentration) was found to be 0.02% Profenophos.
The research study is to assess the nutritional supplementation in term of nutritional grading and nutritional deficiency diseases among Preschoolers in Kerala state. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in among children of age group of 3-6 years in 4 districts of Kerala State was selected randomly for the present study, rural population of child beneficiaries of ICDS scheme which comprises of children upto six years of age, who were registered at AWC as Beneficiaries and served by Anganwadi centre for more than one year and corresponding those who were not registered took as Non-beneficiaries. Results: Malnutrition in ICDS group was found to be 50 %in male 58.0% in female, 16.3 % in males and 20.5 % in female and 44.9 % in male and 44.0% in female respectively while in Non- ICDS Utilizers stunting is 75 % in male and 69 %in female, wasting 27.0% in males and 28.0 % in females and underweight is 60.9% in males and 60.1% in female respectively, The Mean Weight of ICDS beneficiaries in general was more than that of non ICDS utilizers.