Plant materials especially green leafy vegetables contain nutrients and phytochemicals whose consumption has been associated with protecting the human body from chronic diseases. With the aim to promote the utilisation of indigenous leafy vegetables commonly consumed in Botswana, nutrient and phytochemical composition of three leafy vegetables: Amaranth (Amarunthus spp.), Spider plant (Cleome gynandra), and Cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata) were evaluated. The moisture content of the vegetables was high ranging from (84.1 ± 0.05 (Amarunthus spp.) to 88.8 ± 0.10% wet basis (Cleome gynandra). The ash content ranged between 1.90 ± 0.06 % (Amarunthus spp.) and 3.0 ± 0.04 % (Cleome gynandra). All the leafy indigenous vegetables were found to be poor sources of protein, fat and fibre. The total phenolics ranged from 10.4 ± 0.5 to 40.4 ± 0.11 mg/g DW. Amarunthus spp. had the highest phenolic content (40.4 ± 0.11mg/g DW). 3,4-dihydroxbenzoic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids were found to be present in Amaranthus spp., 3,4-dihydroxbenzoic, 4-hydroxbenzoic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids where found in Vigna unguiculata whilst vanillic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids were found in Cleome gynandra. Ferulic acid appeared in all the samples analysed, however, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant. The results from the study emphasize the role of these vegetables as a source of nutrients and polyphenols which could contribute to their health promoting properties and offer enormous opportunities for the functional food industry.
Yoghurt produced from soy milk are considered to have poor consumer acceptability and sensory attributes. Development in flavor and texture of soy milk yogurt needs a grouping of treatments. The present study employed some treatments including thermal, added flavor essence, sweetener, and animal’s milk-based products to develop soy milk yoghurt.
Proximate analysis and consumer studies were carried out on the 10 soy milk yogurt formulations. The current study proposed that Gorgan 3 soybean variety created better soy yogurt than Pershing variety. By adding animal’s milk-based products on soy yogurt can be improved taste and also make a good texture. Adding fruit (banana and orange) flavor essences and colors with sweetener (sucrose) increases the reception of the soy yogurt. Samples of soy yogurt formulations with the most preferred sensory attributes were the samples containing 1% skimmed milk powder; 2% sucrose with orange flavor essence; and 2% sucrose with banana flavor essence.
The purpose of this study is to determine the body mass index and problems encountered of selected endurance athletes of Bulacan State University during training and event proper that will be a basis of sports and nutrition program. The major instrument that was utilized in this is study consisted of survey questionnaire tool. The instrument has 3 parts. Part 1 is the demographic profile of the athletes of Bulacan State University which includes age, gender, living arrangement, and sports. Part 2 represents the level of nutritional status of the athletes in terms of BMI. Part 3 is the problems encountered by the respondents during training and competition. The research concluded that most respondents have normal body mass index. The athletes’ most encountered problem during the regular training is weight management while eating disorder and lack of motivation are their least concern. Lack of sleep is the major concern or of the athletes during the rigid training while eating disorder, lack of motivation, weight management and lack of supporters are their least concern. Majority of the respondents concern is injury during competition. While time of meals and fluid intake during competition is their least concern.