Introduction Enterococci, though considered less virulent are notorious to cause various clinical infections like urinary tract infections, endocarditis, intraabdominal infections pelvic and neonatal infections. Enterococci tend to be the leading causes of nosocomial infections with E.faecium and E.faecalis accounting upto 90% of clinical isolates. Thus proper identification of enterococci to special level is crucial for management and prevention of these bacteria in any healthcare facility. Aims and Objectives To process several clinical samples obtained from various departments in our hospital, for the isolation of enterococcus spp. To know the prevalence of enterococcal infections in our hospital and To speciate the isolated enterococci from clinical samples Materials and Methods A total of 1164 samples were collected from the patients across all age groups. Clinical specimens such as urine, pus, blood, body tissues, peritoneal fluid and Endotracheal aspirate were included in our study. All the specimens brought to the laboratory were subjected to the following tests: A preliminary macroscopic and microscopic examination of specimens. Specimens were processed by inoculation onto 5% sheep blood agar, Macconkey agar, CHROM agar and Thioglycollate and Brain heart infusion broths . The inoculated media were incubated at 37 c overnight and observed for growth. Preliminary identification of Enterococci was made on taking into account of their typical morphology on gram staining, Bile esculin test ,PYR hydrolysis ,Heat and salt tolerance tests. Further identification to species level was achieved with the battery of biochemical reactions, motility and pigment tests Results A total of 1164 samples were collected from the patients and processed for study purpose. Among these only 849 (72.93%) were culture positive and included E.coli, S.aureus, K.pneumoniae, P.aeruginosa and Enterococcus spp. Prevalence of enterococci in clinical samples were 128 (15.07%). Distribution of enterococci in clinical samples, The maximum number of Enterococcal isolates were from urine (54.68%). The rest of the isolates were from pus (32.81%),Blood (5.46%),Tissue (3.12%), Peritoneal fluid (3.12%) each. Endotracheal tube tip (0.78%). Species of enterococci , 97 isolates were identified as E.faecalis (75.78%) and 31 isolates (24.21%) as E.faecium . Conclusion Precise identification of Enterococcus to species level is not only important to assess species specific antimicrobial resistance characteristics but also quintessential to know the epidemiological pattern of enterococcal infection and their significance in causation of human infections.
Introduction: Our country has a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) with a prevalence of 211 cases per 100,000 populations. With limited resources, the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) relies primarily on smear microscopy for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB).
Material and methods: The study was conducted over a period of 6 months. Sputum samples were collected and processed for AFB detection by Ziehl Neelson staining and Fluorochrome method.
Results: A total of 861 samples were included of which by fluorescent staining 114 (13.24%) samples were positive and by Ziehl-Neelsen’s staining 89 (10.33%) samples were positive. Fluorescent staining method detected twenty five more sputum smear acid fast bacilli than Ziehl –Neelsen’s staining method.
Conclusions: Our study showed that the fluorescent staining method has better sensitivity than Ziehl-Neelsen’s in detection of acid fast bacilli. Fluorescent staining detects acid fast bacilli in low densities. Fluorescent method is more reliable and easy whenever dealing with large number of samples.
Eosinophilia in asymptomaticpatients remained a diagnostic challenge which requires understanding of differentparasites. The high eosinophilic counts are usually seen helminths and protozoans but it remained challenging to diagnose other asymptomatic nonhelminthic parasitic diseases. So, it is important to do a controlled study of finding significance of high eosinophilic count in these parasites. In the present study we attempt to find an association between high eosinophilia and non-helminthic parasitic infections.
Background & Objectives: Meloidogyne incognita is a one of the major pathogens of tomato in India and cause severe crop damage. M. incognita can be managed effectively by chemical treatments but many of the nematicides are expensive, pose human and environmental risk. Management of M. incognita with biological control agents has been receiving growing consideration. Therefore, in the present study neem and Bt were used to control M. incognita through egg hatching experiment in laboratory conditions.
Methods: Nematicidal activities of neem and Bacillus thuringiensis have been investigated against root-knot nematode (M. incognita) in laboratory conditions. For this purpose, the effects of aqueous extract of the neem leaf and seed alone, Bt alone (whole cell suspension) and combination with each other on the hatch of eggs of Meloidogyne incognita were evaluation for different time intervals (1 h to 72 h).
Results: The NSE inhibit the egg hatching at first hour was 50% which increased to 100% at 72 h. NLE was also effective and egg hatch inhibition was 94.3% and 96.8% at 48h and 72h respectively. Egg hatch inhibition in standard concentrations (100% w/v) of neem, increased with increase in incubation time from 1 h to 72 h. Effect of whole cell suspension (WCS) (1.1X 109 CFU/ml) + neem seed extract on egg hatching after 12 h exposure was the most effective treatment and caused significantly least number of egg hatching (0.2%) as compared to the water control. The present study indicated that WCS formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis strain MTCC CODE 1953 was effective and caused significantly 100% egg hatch inhibition after 72 h exposure as compared to the water control.
Incidence of dengue infection has been increasing since last few years. Diagnosis of dengue mainly depends upon detection of NS1 antigen, IgM antibodies or a rising titre of IgG antibodies in patients’ blood by ELISA. This study was undertaken to evaluate a rapid test kit for detection of NS1 antigen and anti-dengue IgM antibodies in suspected dengue fever taking NS1 ELISA and MAC ELISA as reference standard. A total number of 1102 serum samples collected from patients having fever for 5 days or less were tested with NS1 ELISA and 1548 serum samples from patients with fever for more than 5 days were subjected for MAC-ELISA. All samples were tested by a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit that detects NS1 antigen, IgM and IgG antibodies. The RDT kit showed a sensitivity and specificity of 95.97% and 99.43% respectively for NS1 antigen detection and 93.90 and 99.53% for IgM.
Background & Objectives: Emergence of imipenem resistance in gram negative bacteria (GNB) is threatening to become a devastating condition especially in hospital critical care areas like burn units. In the grim scenario of non-availability of newer effective broad-spectrum antibiotic, we decided to determine the antibacterial activity of Ocimum (Tulsi) against imipenem resistant (IR) bacteria isolated from burn wound infections (BWI).
Methods: 108 GNB isolated from burn wounds were included in this study. Screening of imipenem resistance was done by disk diffusion (Imipenem disk =10µg) method & confirmed by microbroth dilution method (0.25-128µg/ml). ImipenemEDTA disk diffusion method was used for detection of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production & confirmed by PCR detection of the gene. Ethanolic soxhlet extract & essential oil (EO) of Ocimum was tested against imipenem resistant gram negative bacteria (IRGNB) by agar disk diffusion method. Tests for synergism between Ocimum extract & imipenem was also done by disk potentiation test. Chemical fingerprint of essential oil was obtained by GCMS.
Results: 32 (29.62%) of the GNB isolated were identified as IRGNB having MIC in the range of 16 to ≥128 µg/ml. 37.5% IR isolates were MBL producers. 6 (23.07%) of 26 isolates tested gave significant inhibition zones & corresponding MIC values ranging 24-26mm & 4-32µg/ml respectively with EO of Ocimum. Synergistic interaction was observed in enterobacteriaceae isolates when EO of Ocimum was tested along with imipenem (10µg) disk.
Interpretation & Conclusions: The incidence of 29.62% IR in this study is quite alarming as retrospective analysis of institutional data shows increasing trend. Crude ethanolic soxhlet extract of Ocimum was seen not to be effective against IR strains. However, essential oil of Ocimum may prove to be a panacea in the combat against imipenem resistant infections especially due to enterobacteriaceae.
Twenty-two strains of Azospirillum spp. were obtained from the 56 maize endorhizosphere samples. Two isolates ASD-7 and ASD-8 were selected on the basis of in vitro N2 fixation and nitrogenase activity (ARA). The inherent sodium azide resistance was recorded and were subjected to NTG mutagenesis. Sixteen mutants were obtained and were further tested for their resistance to higher concentration of sodium azide. Six azide resistant mutants examined for their N2 fixing ability, higher nitrogenase activity and production of plant growth promoting substances. Among the mutants ASD-802 and ASD-801 fixed higher amount of nitrogen (63.01 and 47.53 mg/g of malate respectively) and showed higher acetylene reduction activity (624 and 586 n moles per mg of protein/hr).