Key Words

Ethnomedicine, Medicinal plants, Indigenous knowledge, Akola District

Introduction

Many plants produce special substances in their roots, leaves, flowers, or seeds that help them to survive. Earliest times, people have gathered these substances to create herbal medicines to treat certain diseases. Many of the powerful drugs used in modern medicines originated in plants.The Indian holy books Vedas mention treatment with plants, which are abundant in that country. Numerous spice plants used even today originate from India: nutmeg, pepper, clove, etc.(Tucakov, 2006 ). In the developed countries the medical drugs (25%) are based on plants and their derivatives (Principe, 2005) and uses of medicinal plants among the indigenous people in rural areas of many developing countries. Forests cover better than 44% of the states geographic area, for a total of 56,448 sq. km. dense forests constitutes 67.10%, while 32.89% is considered open forests, of the total forests area (Kala, 2006 and Brij, 1993) India has ancient history of use of plants in the indigenous system of medicine- Ayurveda. Unani, sidda in dates back over 5000years.Medicinal plants are the back bone of traditional medicine

(Farnsworth, 1994). Medicinal plants and herbal medicines are a major component of traditional medicine (Bussmann and Sharon, 2006). Herbal medicines constitute a major source of all the officially recognized system of health in India, Viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Sidda, Homeopathy and Naturopathy (Vaidya and Devasagayam, 2007). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) more than 80% of World’s population mostly in poor and less developed countries depend on traditional plant based herbal medicines for their primary health care needs (Bajaj and Williams, 1995 and WHO, IUCN and WWF, 1993)

Akola is an district of Maharashtra and it display faily ethnomedicinal rich plants and cultural diversity. Akola district is situated at latitude 20.7° north and longitude 77.07° east. Melghat Hills and forest region surround the Akola district. Akola is blessed by numerous water bodies like Morna River, Purna River, Vaan River, Aas River, Shahnur River etc. There are several dams in the district. Akola has encountered three floods since 1978. The portion covered by forests in Akola stretches to an area of 467 square kilometers. The natural vegetation of forest includes a variety of plant species having medicinal value. Tribal are largely dependent on forest products for their livelihood. They are knowledgeable about the utility of the majority of these plants.

Material and Method

Ethnomedicinal surveys were conducted in 2015-16 in Akola district. The collected data on selected ethnomedicinal plants used from rural peoples used for curing various diseases. These observations are based on personal interviews with elderly rural people and knowledgeable of ayurveda those are practicing herbal therapy Identification of collected plants was with the help of flora of Marathwada (Naik, 1998). The plant sample in the herbarium were kept in Department of Botany, RLT College Akola . The botanical names, common name, family, locality plant species are given bellow.

Table 1: List of the plant used as treatment of diseases

Sr. no. Botanical name Common name Family Part used Used
1 Mimosa pudica lajvanti Fabaceae Root and leaves Toothache. indigestion
2 Tamarindus indica. Chincha Fabaceae leaves and seed Relief from burns. Leaves of tamarind are used in herbal tea decoctions.
3 Daucus carota L. Gajor Apiaceae Root Appetite stimulant
4 Aloe vera Korphad Liliaceae Leaves Fever, pile, painful inflammation, skin diseases, Urine disorders.
5 Ficus glomerata Umbar Moraceae Root, bark, latex, Unripe and ripe fruits. Monorrhagia, cough, laryngitis, diabetes, gonorrhea, boils, wounds
6 Mangifera indica Aam Anacardiaceae Leaf, Seed Dysentery, helminthiases, liver disorder.
7 Coriandrum sativum Dhonia Apiaceae Seed Loss of appetite.
8 Asparagu sracemosus Shatamuli Asparagaceae Bark, Root Edema, microbial infections, increases lactation, weakness
9 Moringa oleifera Shevaga Moringaceae (Fabaceae Root, bark, gum, leaves, pods Diuretic, cardiac stimulant, scurvy, eye diseases, epilepsy, dyspepsia.
10 Tridax procumbens Dagadi Pala Asteraceae Leaves Check haemorrhage of wound, catarrath, bronchitis, diarrhoea, dysentery.
11 Vitex negundo Nirgudi Verbenaceae Roots, bark, leaves Headache, catarrh, inflammatory swellings, vermifuge, febrifuge, sinuses.
12 Annona squamosa Shitafal Annonaceae Leaves, roots, fruits and seeds Reducing weight
13 Acacia nilotica Babul Fabaceae Pods, leaves, bark Dental use
14 Murraya koienigii Godnimb Ruteaceae Leaves Stimulant, Digestive
15 Emblica officinalis Amla Euphorbiaceac Fruit Cough , Diabetes, cold, Laxativ, hyper acidity.
16 Withania Somnifera Aswagandha Solanaccac Root, Leafs Restorative Tonic, stress, nerves disorder, aphrodiasiac.
17 Lawsennia iermis Henna/Mehdi Lytharaceae Leaf, Flower, Seed Burning, Steam, Anti Imflamatary
18 Ocimum sanclum Tulsi Lamiaceae Leaves/Seed Cough, Cold, bronchitis,expectorand
19 Cassia fistula Amaltas Leguminosae Leaves, flower Ring warm and other skin infection
20 Annona squamosa L Seethapala Annonaceae Seed Hair lice

Conclusion

The studied survey of ethanomedicinal plants of selected family concludes that, the role of ethno medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases and disorders. They use various plants, flowers, seeds, bark, stems are used today’s treatment. The collected information of ethnomedicinal plant is good for new generation. In the studied area, the many herbal remedy which plays an important role in the life of the community.