The Jaisalmer district a part of Thar Desert is very rich in medicinal plant wealth. These medicinal plants have been used by local people and tribal communities since long time in herbal and folk remedies. Kalbelia, Nats, Bhils, Raika, Bhopas, Banjara, Gadolia-Lohar, Garasia and Saharia tribal communities of this district have a rich knowledge of plants based traditional medicines. Fifteen ethnomedicinal plants like Abrus precatorius Linn., Aerva persica Burm.f., Argemone mexicana Linn., Calligonum polygonoides Linn., Chenopodium album Linn. Cleome viscosa Linn., Commiphora wightii Arnott., Corchorus depressus Linn., Cucumis melo Linn., Euphorbia hirta Linn., Fagonia indica Burm., Grewia tenax Forsk., Salvadora oleoides Decne., Solanum nigrum Linn. and Ziziphus nummularia Burm. have been selected for this research work. The present investigation is aimed to create awareness about the ethnomedicinal value of the plants and their uses to draw the attention of pharmacologists, phytochemists and pharmaceuticals.
An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the ethnic groups (Irular) in Ariyalur District, Tamilnadu. The tribal communities of Irular have rich knowledge about medicinal plants and its traditional uses. Therefore, we have done an exhaustive ethnobotanical survey in this area. In this present investigation, it is observed that the tribes being used 48 wild valuable plant species belonging to 32 families were identified with relevant information and documented in this paper with regard to their botanical name, family, vernacular name, parts used and utilization by the local tribal people for different human ailments. The common diseases treated by the herbal practitioner were asthma, cold, cough, indigestion, aphrodisiacs, paralyzes, skin diseases and diabetes.
Background: The use of birds for ethnomedicine is not well documented, particularly in Africa. The purpose of this study was to understand how birds are used for Traditional Medicine (TM) among the Maasai people.
Methods: Data on the use of birds for TM was collected on the Maasai people through informal and structured interviews. Maasai elders, traditional doctors, and Laibons were interviewed to get information on ethno medicinal uses of birds. The information collected included; the bird species used, part of the bird used, the mode of preparation and administration and, and availability of the species. The Fidelity Level (FL%) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) were calculated to determine the perceived availability of bird species and common ailments treated using birds.
Results: Birds in sixteen bird orders were said to be used for curative purpose and fifteen bird orders were used for spiritual healing. Ciconiiformes and Struthioniformes were commonly used for curative purposes, while Passeriformes and Ciconiiformes were mostly used for spiritual healing. Curative treatments were administered mainly in the form of concoctions, while in spiritual treatments the whole bird was used. Bird species were said not to be readily availability for either curative or spiritual use.
Conclusion: It is evident from this study that birds play an important role in healthcare among the Maasai people. Future studies should focus on analysis of the active bioactive chemicals in the parts and products of birds used for curative purposes
Enhydra fluctuans is a marshy herb usually eaten by folk people as vegetable and also used for anti diarrhoeal activity. In the present study solvent extracts of the leaf were screened for phytochemical, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity. All the extracts showed the presence of tannin, saponins and flavonoids. Except for chloroform extract, terpenoid was also present in all other extracts. Cytotoxic activity was conducted using brine shrimp mortality assay, Chloroform extract showed highly significant activity of 93.9%. Antioxidant activity was tested qualitatively as well as quantitatively and polar extracts showed better activity in comparison to non-polar extracts.
Though the majority of people in Kenya and Tharaka in particular, depend on ethnomedicine to manage different ailments, the indigenous knowledge largely is not documented. As a result, an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plant species used to manage ailments in Tharaka, Kenya was conducted. The objectives were to identify and document plants traditionally used for medicinal therapy by the Tharakans, to find out the method used for preparing and administering the drugs and to find out the conservation practices for the medicinal plants. Ethnobotanical data was collected by observations and use of semi-structured interviews. 71 plants belonging to 51 genera in 30 families were identified and reported to be of medicinal value to the locals. Roots are the most used (38%) followed by leaves (29%) and stem/bark (26%). The study revealed other hitherto undocumented medicinal plant species that may be new records for treating various ailments. Traditional medicine in Tharaka provides a convenient, accessible and cheap remedy that suits the traditional lifestyle of the local community in comparison to the modern medicine. Majority of the plants reported in the current study were found to be under threat and this warrants for conservation measures so as to maximize the sustainable use of these vital resources in the study area.
This study investigated the microbial contamination of commonly used polyherbal products in Lagos State. Thirty polyherbal products were purchased from different vendors. Using standard microbiological techniques for microbial analysis, the bacteria isolates used included Bacillus sp (100%), Flavobacterium sp (30%), Pseudomonas sp (50%) and Staphylococcus sp (33.3%) while the fungi isolates used were Fusarium sp (10%), Aspergillus flavus (43.3%), Penicilium sp (13.3%), Geotrichum candidum (3.3%), Mucor sp (3.3%), Aspergillus oryzae (23.3%) and Aspergillus niger (3.3%). The total bacteria counts ranged from 2.5×103 to 6.4×109 cfu/ml while fungal counts ranged from 9.5×103 to 3.5×109 cfu/ml. This study has shown that most polyherbal preparations sold in Lagos State are of poor microbiological standards which may be due to poor sanitary and inappropriate hygienic measures. Improved hygiene standards of polyherbal products is recommended.
Ethno botanical studies were carried out to collect information on the use of Medicinal Plants by the tribal people of Eastern Ghates of Andhra Pradesh, India. Ethnomedicinal uses of 71 plant species along with local name, botanical name, family, part used, ailments for which the drug is administrated, mode of administration are presented. They belong to 54 genera and 33 families. These plants use to cure different type of ailments. Most remedies were taken orally, accounting for 62% of medicinal use. The most widely sought after plant parts in the preparation of remedies in the areas are the root and leaves. Tribal people have high number of medicinal plant species for the treatment of different type of diseases.
Present papers provide the information about the ethnomedicinal plants of Hingoli District of Maharashtra state. Total 28 ethnomedicinal plants species belonging to the 22 families which are used for curing the 17 diseases were recorded from the local healer and tribals of the district. Many of the ethnomedicinal value are new to the science. Their updated botanical name, family, local name and uses are provided.
An ethnomedicinal survey was conducted among the primitive tribal community residing in Pedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. Although the tribe is fast losing their traditional customs, their traditional medicinal practitioners still exist although the traditional medicinal wisdom of the primitive tribes has not been previously documented. In the present ethnomedicinal survey, it was observed that primitive tribal traditional medicinal practitioners use medicinal plant parts for treatment of ailments. A total of 30 plants were used by the tribal healers in their medicinal formulations. These plant species were distributed into 23 families. Of the 30 plants the ailments treated with medicinal plants by the tribal healers were quite limited. A review of the available scientific literature suggests that many of the medicinal plants used by the tribals can be validated scientifically in their traditional uses based on reported pharmacological activities present in those plants.
Ethnobotany of Actinopteris radiata (Sw.) Link, Acrostichum aureum (Linn), Dryopteris cochleata (Buch. Ham. ex D. Don), Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith, Hemionitis arifolia (Burm.) Moore and Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link is perhaps the first report on the phytochemical analysis, clinical trials for anthelmintic efficacy of ferns in naturally infected sheeps (Ovis aries) against Haemonchus contortus. Qualitative phytochemical analysis among the three solvents used viz., Aqueous, Ethanolic and Petroleum ether, ethanolic fern extract performed well to express the phytoconstituents. Quantitative phytochemical analysis indicated a higher tannin and phenolic content in Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link and lower content in Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith. In vitro study confirmed lesser time taken for paralysis and death of Haemonchus contortus worm in Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link extract unlike the other ferns studied. In vivo clinical trials using Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test on day 0 (pre-treatment) and on day 5, 7, 9 (post-treatment) with ethanolic fern extracts revealed Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link (91%) had better efficacy than Actinopteris radiata (Sw.) Link (84%), Dryopteris cochleata (Buch. Ham. ex D. Don) (78%), Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith (65%), Acrostichum aureum (Linn) (56%) and Hemionitis arifolia (Burm.) Moore (49%).
The selected medicinal plants were investigated for the pharmaceutical uses such as to act as antioxidant agents. The Clitoria ternatea, Solanum nigrum and Aloe vera leaves were extracted serially by the solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform ,butanol, ethanol and acetone) were tested for their free radical scavenging activity against DPPH by using the petroleum ether extracts of Clitoria ternatea, Solanum nigrum and Aloe vera leaves were the most effective scavenging of DPPH. These plant extracts were also analyzed for the activities of selected enzymic antioxidants such as peroxidase and reduced glutathione and the non-enzymic antioxidants were total carotenoids, flavanoids ant total chlorophyll . The results showed the leaves of Solanum nigrum possess higher levels of antioxidants. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and acetone extracts of Clitoria ternatea, Solanum nigrum and Aloe vera leave were studied for their antimicrobial activity against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar well diffusion method. The extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens.
This paper deals with 32 plant species belonging to 24 families used to treat fever prevalent among different tribal people of Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. Plant species enumerated along with scientific name, local name, method of administration and prescribed dose. The present study also documents 2 new plants and 10 new medicinal practices. The present investigation is aimed to create awareness about the ethno medicinal value of the plants and their uses to draw the attention of pharmacologists, phytochemists and pharmaceuticals.
In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on important medicinal plant Prosopis cineraria, (Family Fabaceae). Fatty acids, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides were the major phytochemical compounds studied from this medicinal plant. The plant possesses the major pharmacological activities which includes analgesic, anthyperlipidemic, antipyretic and antimicrobial activity. This review encompasses the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.
The present study aimed at evaluating the nutritional profile, antinutritional value, mineral value and phytochemical screening of wild edible fruit of Rubus laciocarpus were investigated by standard method. The fruits have been found to rich in nutrients and minerals such as crude protein, carbohydrates, crude fiber, ash content (3.87%, 31.28%, 3.25% and 1.80%) and minerals as calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus (1.30%, 6.13%, 2.10% and 0.60%) respectively and phytochemical screening of plant for the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, resin and tannins. However, alkaloids were absent. This analysis revealed that, the fruits contained higher value of fat, protein, fiber and minerals as compared to the cultivated fruits with Grapes and 500gm fruits contain sufficient amount of nutrients required per day by a person.