Volume 1 Issue 1

Title : Cytotoxic, phytochemical and antioxidant potential of marshy herb Enhydra fluctuans Lour
Authors : Sunita Bhatnagar,Rituparna Panigrahi

Enhydra fluctuans is a marshy herb usually eaten by folk people as vegetable and also used for anti diarrhoeal activity. In the present study solvent extracts of the leaf were screened for phytochemical, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity. All the extracts showed the presence of tannin, saponins and flavonoids. Except for chloroform extract, terpenoid was also present  in all other extracts. Cytotoxic activity was conducted using brine shrimp mortality assay, Chloroform extract showed highly significant activity of 93.9%. Antioxidant activity was tested qualitatively as well as quantitatively and polar extracts
showed better activity in comparison to non-polar extracts.

Keywords :Enhydra fluctuans , tannin , saponins , flavonoids , cytotoxic , antioxidant
Download Pdf
Title : Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Tharaka people of Kenya
Authors : Magrate M. Kaigongi,Fredrick M. Musila

Though the majority of people in Kenya and Tharaka in particular, depend on ethnomedicine to manage different ailments, the indigenous knowledge largely is not documented. As a result, an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plant species used to manage ailments in Tharaka, Kenya was conducted. The objectives were to identify and document plants traditionally used for medicinal therapy by the Tharakans, to find out the method used for preparing and administering the drugs and to find out the conservation practices for the medicinal plants. Ethnobotanical data was collected by observations and use of semi-structured interviews. 71 plants belonging to 51 genera in 30 families were identified and reported to be of medicinal value to the locals. Roots are the most used (38%) followed by leaves (29%) and stem/bark (26%). The study revealed other hitherto undocumented medicinal plant species that may be new records for treating various ailments. Traditional medicine in Tharaka provides a convenient, accessible and cheap remedy that suits the traditional lifestyle of the local community in
comparison to the modern medicine. Majority of the plants reported in the current study were found to be under threat and this warrants for conservation measures so as to maximize the sustainable use of these vital resources in the study area.

Keywords : Ethnobotany , traditional medicine , medicinal plants , indigenous knowledge
Download Pdf
Title : Ethnomedicinal Plants Used for Treating Scorpion Sting and Snake Bite Poison by the Tribes of Rahatgaon, Harda
Authors : C Sreelatha Kutty

The present study mainly focuses on the study of Indigenous Herbal Remedies used for treating poison of scorpion sting and snake bite by tribal communities of Rahatgaon of District Harda, in Madhya Pradesh. The present study is based upon the ethno botanical studies on two tribal communities of Gond and Korku. Tribal healers utilize several local available plants in ethno-medicinal practices. Present paper reports the use of 23 species of plants used by the tribal communities remedy for animal poison.

Keywords : Medicinal plants , tribes , scorpion sting , snake bite
Download Pdf
Title : Microbial Load of Some Polyherbal Products from Lagos State, Nigeria
Authors : MacDonald Idu,Adeola Jimoh,Oghale Ovuakporie-Uvo

Polyherbals major markets LThis study investigated the microbial contamination of commonly used polyherbal products in Lagos State. Thirty polyherbal products were purchased from different vendors. Using standard microbiological techniques for microbial analysis, the bacteria isolates used included Bacillus sp (100%), Flavobacterium sp (30%), Pseudomonas sp (50%) and Staphylococcus sp (33.3%) while the fungi isolates used were Fusarium sp (10%), Aspergillus flavus (43.3%), Penicilium
sp (13.3%), Geotrichum candidum (3.3%), Mucor sp (3.3%), Aspergillus oryzae (23.3%) and Aspergillus niger (3.3%). The total bacteria counts ranged from 2.5x103 to 6.4×109
cfu/ml while fungal counts ranged from 9.5x103 to 3.5x109 cfu/ml. This study has shown that most polyherbal preparations sold in Lagos State are of poor microbiological standards which may be due to poor sanitary and inappropriate hygienic measures. Improved hygiene standards of polyherbal products is recommended.agos Nigeria

Keywords : KEYWORDS: Microbial load
Download Pdf
Title : Traditional Phytotherapy for Health Care of Tribal’s in Eastern Ghates of Andhra Pradesh, India.
Authors : S.B. Padal,S. Devisoundarya,Koda. Satyavathi

Ethno botanical studies were carried out to collect information on the use of Medicinal Plants by the tribal people of Eastern Ghates of Andhra Pradesh, India. Ethnomedicinal uses of 71 plant species along with local name, botanical name, family, part used, ailments for which the drug is administrated, mode of administration are presented. They belong to 54 genera and 33 families. These plants use to cure different type of ailments. Most remedies were taken orally, accounting for 62% of medicinal use. The most widely sought after plant parts in the preparation of remedies in the areas are the root and leaves.
Tribal people have high number of medicinal plant species for the treatment of different type of diseases.

Keywords : Ethnomedicinal investigation , tribal people , eastern ghates , andhra Pradesh
Download Pdf
Title : Uses of birds for ethnomedicine among the Maasai people in Monduli district, northern Tanzania
Authors : John Kioko,Delaney Smith,Christian Kiffner

Background: The use of birds for ethnomedicine is not well documented, particularly in Africa. The purpose of this study was to understand how birds are used for Traditional Medicine (TM) among the Maasai people. Methods: Data on the use of birds for TM was collected on the Maasai people through informal and structured interviews. Maasai elders, traditional doctors, and Laibons were interviewed to get information on ethnomedicinal uses of birds. The information colted included the bird species used, part of the bird used, the mode of preparation and administration and, and availability of the species. The Fidelity Level (FL%) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) were calculated to determine the perceived availability of bird species and common ailments treated using birds. Results: Birds in sixteen bird orders were said to be used for curative purpose and fifteen bird orders were used for spiritual healing. Ciconiiformes and Struthioniformes were commonly used for curative purposes, while Passeriformes and
Ciconiiformes were mostly used for spiritual healing. Curative treatments were administered mainly in the form of concoctions, while in spiritual treatments used the whole bird was used. Bird species were said not to be readily availability for either curative or spiritual use. Conclusion: It is evident from this study that birds play an important role in healthcare among the Maasai people. Future studies should focus on analysis of the active bioactive chemicals in the parts and products of birds used for curative purposes

Keywords : Medicinal uses of bird species Maasai people
Download Pdf
Title : Sibr (Aloe Barbadensis Miller.), A Potent Herb of Unani Medicine – A Review
Authors : Amena Khatoon,Ashfaque Ahmad,Mohd Azeem

Unani System of medicine is universal in its origin and exists into south Asian countries particularly in India. In this system most of the treatments depend upon plants. Unani Drugs consist of naturally occurring mostly herbal medicine. India has such a diverse climate that many kinds of medicinal herbs and plants are available in this country.Among them one is Sibr (Aloe vera Linn.). Sibr, also known as the ‘plant of immortality’ by the ancient Egyptians, was used for its healing properties since time immemorial. It is known for its succulent or fleshy leaves. This nontoxic plant stores water in its leaves and survives in low rainfall and arid regions. Aloe Vera leaf looks unique. it doesn’t have any stems and the edges of leaves have tiny spikes. It has detailed descriptions in Unani Literatures.

Keywords : Sibr , Drug review , Unani Literature
Download Pdf
Title : Pharmacological Effect of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes on milk induced eosinophilia in the management of Asthma
Authors : Aslam Pathan,Abdulrahman Alshahrani,Feras Al-Marshad

Aim of study- Curcuma zedoaria (Family: Zingiberaceae) is being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of severe bronchitis and asthma. So the aim of study was to evaluate antiasthmatic activity of extracts of curcuma zedoaria rhizomes to validate its traditional & Ethnopharmacological use. Materials and methods- In the present study petroleum ether, ethanol and water extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes at the doses of 25-100 mg/kg i. p. was evaluated for antiasthmatic activity using milk induced eosinophilia in mice.
Results- The results of present investigation showed that the ethanol extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes at (25-100
mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreases milk induced eosinophilia in mice in a dose dependent manner when compared to
petroleum ether, water extract and control group.
Conclusion- It can be concluded that the ethanol extract of Curcuma zedoaria (100 mg/kg) may be useful in management &
prevention of asthma.

Keywords :
Curcuma zedoaria , asthma , eosinophilia
Download Pdf
Title : Ethnomedicinal Plants Used By Primitive Tribal of Pedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District, A.P, India.
Authors : S. B. Padal,Koda Satyavathi,Sekari Satyavani,TSN Padal

An ethnomedicinal survey was conducted among the primitive tribal community residing in Pedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. Although the tribe is fast losing their traditional customs, their traditional medicinal practitioners still exist although the traditional medicinal wisdom of the primitive tribes has not been previously documented. In the present ethnomedicinal survey, it was observed that primitive tribal traditional medicinal practitioners use medicinal plant parts for treatment of ailments. A total of 30 plants were used by the tribal healers in their medicinal formulations. These plant species were distributed into 23 families. Of the 30 plants the ailments treated with medicinal plants by the tribal healers were quite limited. A review of the available scientific literature suggests that many of the medicinal plants used by the tribals can be validated scientifically in their traditional uses based on reported pharmacological activities present in those plants.

Keywords :
Ethnomedicinal investigation , medicinal plants , tribal people of Pedabayalu Mandalam , Visakhapatnam district
Download Pdf
Title : Lesser Known Ethnomedicinal Plants of Hingoli District, Maharashtra, India
Authors : Tukaram Kamble,Milind Sardesai

Present papers provide the information about the ethnomedicinal plants of Hingoli District of Maharashtra state. Total 28 ethnomedicinal plants species belonging to the 22 families which are used for curing the 17 diseases were recorded from the local healer and tribals of the district. Many of the ethnomedicinal value are new to the science. Their updated botanical name, family, local name and uses are provided.

Keywords : Maharashtra , ethnomedicinal plants
Download Pdf
Title : Anthelmintic efficacy of selected ferns in sheeps (Ovis aries.Linn)
Authors : Kalpana Devi Rajesh,Nakulan Valsala Rajesh,Subramani Vasantha,Solomon Jeeva,Durai Rajasekaran

Ethnobotany of Actinopteris radiata (Sw.) Link, Acrostichum aureum (Linn), Dryopteris cochleata (Buch. Ham. ex D. Don), Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith, Hemionitis arifolia (Burm.) Moore and Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link is perhaps the first report on the phytochemical analysis, clinical trials for anthelmintic efficacy of ferns in naturally infected sheeps (Ovis aries) against Haemonchus contortus. Qualitative phytochemical analysis among the three solvents used viz., Aqueous, Ethanolic and Petroleum ether, ethanolic fern extract performed well to express the phytoconstituents. Quantitative phytochemical analysis indicated a higher tannin and phenolic content in Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link and lower content in Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith. In vitro study confirmed lesser time taken for paralysis and death of Haemonchus contortus worm in Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link extract unlike the other ferns studied. In vivo clinical trials using Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test on day 0 (pre-treatment) and on day 5, 7, 9 (post-treatment) with ethanolic fern extracts revealed Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link (91%) had better efficacy than Actinopteris radiata (Sw.) Link (84%), Dryopteris cochleata (Buch. Ham. ex D. Don) (78%), Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith (65%), Acrostichum aureum (Linn) (56%) and Hemionitis arifolia (Burm.) Moore (49%).

Keywords : Ethnobotany , Fern , Phytochemical , Anthelmintic , In vitro , In vivo , Sheeps
Download Pdf
Title : A review on phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Prosopis cineraria
Authors : Shivali sachdeva,Vichitra Kaushik,Vipin Saini

In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on important medicinal plant Prosopis cineraria, (Family Fabaceae). Fatty acids, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides were the major phytochemical compounds studied from this medicinal plant. The plant possesses the major pharmacological activities which includes analgesic, anthyperlipidemic, antipyretic and antimicrobial activity. This review encompasses the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.

Keywords : Prosopis cineraria , Phytoconstituents , Pharmacological activities
Download Pdf
Title : Ethno-medicine used against fever among the tribes of Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India
Authors : S. B. Padal,B. Sandhya Sri,J. B. Raju

This paper deals with 32 plant species belonging to 24 families used to treat fever prevalent among different tribal people of Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. Plant species enumerated along with scientific name, local name, method of administration and prescribed dose. The present study also documents 2 new plants and 10 new medicinal practices. The present investigation is aimed to create awareness about the ethno medicinal value of the plants and their uses to draw the attention of pharmacologists, phytochemists and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords : Ethno-medicine , Fever , Tribal communities , Visakhapatnam district
Download Pdf
Title : Study on Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Selected Medicinal Plants
Authors : Jayachitra A,krithiga N,rajalakshmi A,gopal P

The selected medicinal plants were investigated for the pharmaceutical uses such as to act as antioxidant agents. The Clitoria ternatea, Solanum nigrum and Aloe vera leaves were extracted serially by the solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform ,butanol, ethanol and acetone) were tested for their free radical scavenging activity against DPPH by using the petroleum ether extracts of Clitoria ternatea, Solanum nigrum and Aloe vera leaves were the most effective scavenging of DPPH. These plant extracts were also analyzed for the activities of selected enzymic antioxidants such as peroxidase and reduced glutathione and the non-enzymic antioxidants were total carotenoids, flavanoids ant total chlorophyll . The results showed the leaves of Solanum nigrum possess higher levels of antioxidants. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and acetone extracts of Clitoria ternatea, Solanum nigrum and Aloe vera leave were studied for their antimicrobial activity against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar well diffusion method. The extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens.

Keywords : Petroleum ether extract , DPPH , Enzymic and Non-enzymic antioxidants , Clitoria ternatea , Solanum nigrum , Aloe vera
Download Pdf
Title : Ethnomedicinal Plants of Jaisalmer District of Rajasthan Used in Herbal and Folk Remedies
Authors : B.B.S. Kapoor,Versha Arora

The Jaisalmer district a part of Thar Desert is very rich in medicinal plant wealth. These medicinal plants have been used by local people and tribal communities since long time in herbal and folk remedies. Kalbelia, Nats, Bhils, Raika, Bhopas, Banjara, Gadolia-Lohar, Garasia and Saharia tribal communities of this district have a rich knowledge of plants based traditional medicines. Fifteen ethnomedicinal plants like Abrus precatorius Linn., Aerva persica Burm.f., Argemone mexicana Linn., Calligonum polygonoides Linn., Chenopodium album Linn. Cleome viscosa Linn., Commiphora wightii Arnott., Corchorus depressus Linn., Cucumis melo Linn., Euphorbia hirta Linn., Fagonia indica Burm., Grewia tenax Forsk., Salvadora oleoides Decne., Solanum nigrum Linn. and Ziziphus nummularia Burm. have been selected for this research work. The present investigation is aimed to create awareness about the ethnomedicinal value of the plants and their uses to draw the attention of pharmacologists, phytochemists and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords : Ethnomedicinal plants , Jaisalmer district , Herbal , Folk Remedies
Download Pdf
Title : Evaluation of Garhwal Himalaya Medicinal Plant Rubus laciocarpus Fruit
Authors : Subhash Chandra,Sarla Saklani

The present study aimed at evaluating the nutritional profile, antinutritional value, mineral value and phytochemical screening of wild edible fruit of Rubus laciocarpus were investigated by standard method. The fruits have been found to rich in nutrients and minerals such as crude protein, carbohydrates, crude fiber, ash content (3.87%, 31.28%, 3.25% and 1.80%) and minerals as calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus (1.30%, 6.13%, 2.10% and 0.60%) respectively and phytochemical screening of plant for the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, resin and tannins. However, alkaloids were absent. This analysis revealed that, the fruits contained higher value of fat, protein, fiber and minerals as compared to the cultivated fruits with Grapes and 500gm fruits contain sufficient amount of nutrients required per day by a person.

Keywords : Nutritional value , Mineral value , Phytochemical Screening
Download Pdf