Keywords

Best kills, multigenerational workforce

Introduction

Among the global realities many sectors of society need to look into, are the demographic trends and realities because it affects a lot of the major concerns of humankind. Evidently demographics is closely related to the focus of this paper, with its title Capturing the Best to Generate and Inspire Multigenerational Workforce. A forecast has been done that the recent decline of today’s developed countries and drive the rise of today’s emerging markets (Jackson, 2011).Demographic change shapes economic and geopolitical power. The long-term prosperity and security of the global security may depend in crucial ways on how effectively it prepares for the demographic transformation now sweeping the world. Most of the developed world finds itself on the cusp of an unprecedented new era of population aging and population decline. According to the United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014), the Median Ages of Western Europe and Japan, which were 34 and 33 respectively in 1980, will soar to 47 and 52 by 2030, assuming no increase in birthdates, In Italy, Spain, and Japan, more than half of all adults by then will be older than the official retirement age – and there will be more people in their seventies than in their twenties.

In India, Badkar (2014) says that the future of an economy is determined heavily by its evolving demographics. Knowing how young or old a country’s population will be is crucial for investors and businesses. Many point to population growth in developing nations as a source of rising domestic demands. But there’s a lot more to be considered. For example, Arab Spring was an extreme, but important reminder of what can happen when you have a young and able workforce with little access to jobs. With that in mind Badkar (2014) drew on George Magnus’ presentation to The Conference Board titled “The Age of Ageing: Global Demographics, destinies and coping mechanisms.” In it, Magnus highlights five big demographic trends shaping the world right now. The ration of children to older citizens stands at about 3:1 but is declining. By around 2040, there will be older citizens than children. By 2050, there will be twice as many older citizens as there are children. Some exceptions to this however are China and Russia. The time taken to double the share of those over 60 years old from 7% to 14% of the population took a long time in western countries. But the emerging markets are aging “at an astounding pace,” according to George Magnus.

The rising dependence of those over 65 on the working age population is referred to as the old age dependency ratio. This is a product of weak fertility and rising longevity. The old age dependency ratio in countries like Germany, Japan, Italy, and Spain is expected to rise rapidly. These countries are characterized as the “hares” because of the rapid progression of old age dependency. The number of workers per older citizen is expected to fall from about 3-5 today to about 1.5 b y the mid-century mark. Meanwhile, the Anglo-Saxon economies like Sweden and France are tortoise by comparison. Here the support ratio will fall from 4-5 workers today, to about 2-2.5 by the mid-century. This is because of higher fertility rates and a more open immigration policy. The tortoises of the emerging markets have a support ratio of 10-20 workers per older citizen, and this is expected to get to where developed countries are by mid-century.

But in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the pace of aging is much slower than say in Indonesia, Turkey and Brazil. India is a demographic choice because one-third of its population is aged fewer than 14 and its working age population will grow in the next 20 years, to more than the existing stock of working age people in Western Europe today.

This is a phase that countries go through when child dependency is falling and the working age population is expanding. But they’re also in a phase just before old age dependency starts to rise. Typically, this phase comes with stronger trends in income, savings, investment and technical progress. This is where other emerging markets countries hope to be in the next few decades. Once the old age dependency ratio starts to rise, however, the demographics dividend can’t be exploited and it tends to drag on growth. The demographic dividend creates the opportunity to draw on these benefits, but doesn’t guarantee it. Exploiting your demographic dividend depends on four is, according to Magnus – better institutions, investment climate, infrastructure, and innovation.

Staying up to date on the latest demographic trends enables organizations to identify existing and emerging markets for their products and services. By evaluating customers’ and prospects’ demographic trends, business decision-makers can identify changing needs in the marketplace and adjust to them. Demographic trends can also help organizations spot future spending trends. For example, the spending trends of Boomers could change as they age out of their peak earning years and head into retirement. When combined with behavioral and attitudinal data, demographics can be used to improve marketing effectiveness by helping business targets new customers segments with the right messages at the right time. When done well, businesses can increase customer awareness, improve customer acquisition efforts, and bolster customer retention rates.

The Philippines ranks as the 9th most populous country in Asia and the 14th in the world. While the country’s’ population growth rate has gone down from 3.3% to 2.4 % over the past 30 years, this growth rate, if unabated, will cause the population to double to 128 million by 2025. The population structure (where 40% are under 15 years of age) as of 1990, with its dependency ratio of 75/100, is indicative of the stain on the limited resources both at the household and at the national level. The last 25 years have seen continued rural to urban migration, resulting in a major shift in the balance between rural and urban populations, and affecting the quality of life both in the cities and the rural communities. Outward movement of Filipinos to other countries, either through emigration or through overseas employment, has caused significant pressure on the integrity of family and community life. It is expected that rapid population growth and imbalances in spatial distribution would continue if there is no recognition of the relationships between population, resources, environment, and development in policy decision-making at all levels of governance, as well as the crucial role that family plays.

International surveys show that Filipinos rank first in religiosity and spirituality. The values of Maka-Diyos and maka-kalikasan are closely woven together in the Filipino’s concern for the environment. In addition, the inherent strengths of the Filipino culture continue to reinforce social cohesion within Philippine society. These include: openness, freedom of expression, gender sensitivity, facility at conflict resolution, resilience, flexibility, highly personalized approach at relationship, strong family orientation, bayanihan spirit, and passion for creative expression (as in the arts). These values are also embodied in the growing tradition of local activism as manifested in the presence of formal Non-Government Organization/People’s Organization (NGO/PO) networks throughout the Philippines (at least formal network in 70 out of 78 provinces). These positive Filipino traits are being felt and recognized globally as demonstrated by the active participation and/or leadership of civil society in complex discussions at various international summits such as the Earth Summit in Rio, Social Development Summit in Copenhagen, Women’s Summit in Beijing and the Habitat Summit in Istanbul, among others.

Continuing difficulties in the implementation of agrarian and urban land reform and comprehensive rural development programs have contributed to unabated migration to urban areas. The absence of far-reaching comprehensive land use and human settlement plans has resulted in the growth of informal settlements. Rapid urbanization has resulted in the conversation of agricultural land to residential, commercial and industrial use and has displaced informal settler communities and undermined food security. Thus, Philippines cities have deteriorated as human habitats, beset with intractable and often interrelated including inadequate mass transportation and road systems; pollution, inadequate and inappropriate waste disposal; flooding; inadequate and unsustainable shelter; water shortage; deterioration of sanitation, health and other basic services, the proliferation of illegal drugs, increase in violence and criminality and other social ills.

Existing measures of human development, such as the Human Development Index (HDI), which are limited to health, education and income, indicate some improvement over time. This improvement has in part been achieved through greater empowerment of the populace. Economic empowerment is evidence by a reduction in the poverty incidence. Physical empowerment is indicated by the increasing upward trend in the life expectancy, while educational empowerment is shown by the increasing functional literacy of the population. However, these improvements are uneven across geographical, income and ethnic groups and are benefiting men more than women. Increasing cultural awareness, gender sensitivity, and local activism are indicative of an expanding consciousness. Nonetheless, the development of full human potential is being impacted by continuing challenges/trends such as; rampant substance abuse; economic exploitation (including prostitution and child labor, among others); break-up of families; significant incidence of street children and homelessness; increasing exposure of people (especially children) to environmental toxins; mixed quality of education; and limited access to livelihood opportunities. Some sectors are being marginalized in the development process leading to poverty and cultural decline as the major human development problems.

While there is acceleration in the growth of our economy, there is evidence that environmental quality is fast deteriorating, as dramatized by the increased occurrence of environmental disasters. Specifically, the gains of economic growth are being diminished and/or even negated by deforestation; mine tailing; pervasive and health-impairing pollution; coral reef deconstruction; massive pesticide poisonings; degradation and erosion of agricultural lands; siltation of rivers and farmlands; salt water intrusion into aquifers; and ill effects that arise from promotion of monocultures (oil palm plantations, for example); destructive eco-tourism; introduction of new technologies that adversely impact the environment; marsh and mangrove conversion; bio-prospecting / bio-piracy; land conversion to golf courses with attendant impacts on water supplies and surrounding ecosystems; massive reclamation projects which disrupt coastal ecosystems; open pit mining; pollutive cement plants and environmentally destructive coal-fired power plants as well as “dirty” energy sources; continued reliance or non-renewable energy sources; destructive fishing methods; indiscriminate oil exploration and exploitation of seas. The cost of remediating water and air alone has been estimated at a minimum of 34 billion and 16 billion pesos, respectively. The regenerative capacities of already fragmented areas of various biogeography zones are similarly threatened.

The current wave of globalization is increasingly posing some threat to the country’s national sovereignty as the imperatives of global capital often cannot be expected to be attuned to the national interest. Domestically, the rich continue to the corner political power.

Framework

This study is anchored on the General Systems Theory by Ludiwg von Bertalanffy (1901-1972). He formulated theory in general to account for similarities in the functioning of such diverse phenomena as living organisms, machines, galaxies and organizations. It was a unique departure from the earlier emphasis on separate analysis of individual parts. It is the most appropriate framework for this study because of its multidisciplinary nature, ability to engage complexity, capacity to describe system dynamics and change, ability to bring together the natural and human words (Chen and Stroup, 1993). The core of this study is the manpower as the input of the school system. The profile of school personnel vary in terms of gender, educational attainment, position and rank in the school, and generation group. All these when factored in can affect the overall performance of the school. It is more important that the differences in profiles in the areas of mindset. Behavioral skills, and generational preferences and addressed properly to ensure smooth working relationship among the staff and effective and efficient of the school. Figure 1ure 1 represents the schematic diagram of the study.

Figure 1:Schematic Diagram of the Study

Objectives of the study

This study attempted to suggest strategies on how to create a cross-generation friendly school; and how to create an environment that will be comfortable to all the generation groups and where culture of excellence will thrive. This study will also determine the current mindset of the respondents, their behavioral skills as well as the similarities and difference of the generations. It also sought to capture the best skills to generate and inspire multigenerational workforce.

Materials and Methods

Research Design

This study employed an action research design which according to Fraenkel, Wallen and Hyun (2012), is one of the most common forms of research engaged in educational settings. It involves asking a large group of people questions about a particular topic or issue. Quantitative data were also gathered using the same the survey instrument. The purpose of this is to find out what they think and feel about something that is related to school management and practices. And once data are on the hand, intervention can be introduced, pilot-tested and assessed.

Locale of the study

This study was conducted in seven (7) schools under the Augustinian Sisters of Our Lady of Consolacion (ASOLC), namely: Assumpta Academy of Bulacan, Colegio del Buen Consejo, Pasig City, La Consolacion College, Mercedes, Pasig City, La Consolacion School, Balastas, Bulacan, La Consolacion College, Valenzuela City, La Consolacion College, Caloocan City and La Consolacion College, Tanauan City, Batangas. According to website of the congregation (www.asolc.gov), ASOLC was founded as the Congregacion de las Hermanas Augustinas Terciarias de Felipinas in 1883 following the rule and spirituality of St. Augustine and upholding its Marian and Missionary character. The first group of four Beatas left Barcelona aboard Magallanes on March 1, 1883. It consisted of the Prioress, Sor Antonia Campillo, Sor Rita Barcelo, (it was she whom our General Chapter in 1969 declared as our Congregation’s Foundress), Sor Agostina Basegoda and Sor Querubina Samarra. They arrived in Manila on April 6, 1883. The second group of Beatas who came to the Philippines to care for the orphans was Sor Monica Mujal, Sor Alfonsa Sabat and Postulant Joaquina, the future Mother Consuelo Barcelo, and blood-sister for Sor Rita Barcelo. In November 21, 1883, the Postulant Joaquina received the Augustinian habit of the Tertiary Order. She was given the same Sor Maria de la Consolacion and was called Sor Consuelo whom we fondly call Mother Consuelo (declared as our Co-Foundress during the General Chapter of1969 but in 20th Gen Chapter of 2009 was declared as Foundress). The Apostolate today counts 23 schools that they administer throughout the country. The criteria used in selecting the respondents were: (1) they should be an administrator of the school (top or middle); or (2) they should be member of the teaching staff. Other staffs were excluded. Purposive sampling was employed in this study. This is a non-probability sampling that involves selecting participants based on their particular profile (Polit & Beck, 2008). The questionnaires were distributed to the respondents and they were instructed to submit them once they were accomplished already.

Instrumental Analysis

The questionnaire consists of three parts. Part I is for the demographic profile of the respondents comprising of gender, highest academic degree, level in the organization and generation group. Part II is the quantitative part with three sections. Section A is the adaption of Carol Dweck’s mindset Scale. This is a 20 item quiz that aims to determine the orientation of the mindset of the respondent (growth mindset or fixed mindset). A 4- point rating scale was used with the following description:

Scale Description
4 Highly Agree (HA)
3 Agree (A)
2 Disagree (DA)
1 Highly Disagree (HD)

In the analysis of data, growth mindset items (2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 15, 18, and 19) and fixed mindset items (1, 4, 7, 8, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, and 20) were separated. Each group was scored accordingly. For growth items: 3= HA, 2 = A, 1 = DA, and 0 =HA. For fixed mindset items: 0= HD, 1= DA, 2=A, and 3= HA. The results were interpreted as follows:

Strong Growth Mindset 60-45 points
Growth Mindset with some fixed ideas 44-34 points
Fixed Mindset with some Growth ideas 33-21 points
Strong Fixed Mindset 20-0 points

Section B is the behavioral Skills of the respondents based on the quantum leadership. It consists of the seven behavioral skills, namely, seeing, thinking, feeling, knowing, acting, trusting, and being. Each area has five statements for a total of 35 statements. A 4-point scale was also used with the following description.

Scale Description Range
4 Highly Agree (HA) 3.51 – 4.00
3 Agree (A) 2.51 – 3.50
2 Disagree (DA) 1.51 – 2.50
1 Highly Disagree (HD) 1.00 – 1.50

The items in questionnaire were stated negatively. They are “not” the desirable behavioral skills. This means that the lower the score, the more respondents disagree with the statements. Ideal result should be low (1.00 to 2.50) or in the highly dis-agree (1.00 – 1.50) to disagree (1.51 – 2.50) scales. Section C is for the perception of the respondents on the work- related behavior. It has five areas, namely: success in the workplace, the development of the both workforce and the institution, leadership attributes, selected aspects of the workplace culture, and meaning for the work. Each area has 10 items; respondents were instructed to select five items on what that they think are important.

Part III is the qualitative part of the questionnaire with two sections. Section A is for the millennial only while section B is for the older generation (Builders, Baby Boomers, and Gen Xers). Respondents have to give their views on the following topics; social interaction, dealing with change, decision making, organization/ management style, and work habits.

Data Analysis

After recording and tabulating the data, the following methods of data analysis were employed: To answer the preparatory research questions, frequency and percentage distribution was used for the profile of the respondents and perception of the respondents on work-related behavior; and weighted mean to compute for mindset and behavioral skills.

Results and discussion

On the profile of the respondents

In terms gender, females dominated the respondents consisting of great majority of 87% as compared to males with 13% only. In terms of highest academic degree, majority of the respondents are bachelor’s degree holder at 69%. Master’s degree holders come in second with 27% and doctors’ degree holders at 4%. In terms of level in the organization, more than half of the respondents are faculty members at 72% and 28% are administrators in terms of position in the organization. In terms of generation group, Majority of the respondents are millennial at 40% followed closely by the gen Xers at 34%. Coming third was the baby boomers at 24%. Trailing behind was the builders at 2%.

On the current mindset of the respondents using Carol Dwecks’s scale

All the mindset scores of the seven schools were in the positive scale. Six out of seven schools have a Growth Mindset with some Fixed Ideas with scores varying from 35 to 43. Only one school reached the Strong Growth Mindset at 57 points. Average score of all the scores fall under Growth Mindset with some Fixed Ideas.

On the behavioral skills of the respondents in term of

All the weighted means of the seven behavioral skills (seeing, thinking, feeling, knowing, acting, trusting, and being) fell under Agree. The strongest are (lowest weighted mean) among the seven behavioral skills are Seeing (wm = 2.52), followed by Thinking (wm = 2.69) and Feeling (wm = 2.70) respectively.

On the perception of the respondents on the work-related behavioral (top three)

Success in the workplace: Understanding of goals (81%); Communication (78%); Willingness to learn new things (75%). Development of the workforce and the institution: Building of the trust (83%); Resolve conflicts constructively (69%); Understands other’s perspective (65%). Important aspects of the workplace culture: Professionalism (77%); Collaboration/Teamwork (76%); Personal growth and development (65%) Meaning for the work: Gives meaning to my life (80%); A fulfillment (72%); Energizes my spirit (57%).

On significant difference in the mindset of the respondents when grouped according to profile

In terms of gender, there is no significant difference in the mindset between males and females.

In terms of highest academic degree, there is significant difference in the mindset between Bachelor’s degree holder and Doctor’s degree holder. When Master’s degree holder is compared with other groups, there is no significant difference. In terms of level in the organization, there is no significant difference between the Administrators and Faculty members. In term of generation group, mindset of Millennials significantly differs with Baby Boomers and Gen Xers but not with Builders. Builders, Baby Boomers, and Gen Xers have no significant difference when compared with each other.

On significant difference in the behavioral skills of the respondents when grouped according to profile

In terms of gender, there is no significant difference in the behavioral skills between Males and Female. In terms of highest academic degree, there is no significant difference in the behavioral skills among Bachelors, Master, and Doctor degree holders. In terms of level in the organization, there is no significant difference in the behavioral skills between the Administrators and Faculty members. In terms of generation group, there is no significant difference in the behavioral skills among Builders, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials

On significant difference in the perception on work-related behaviors of the respondents when grouped according to profile

In term of gender, there is no significant difference in the perception of work-related behaviors between Males or Females. In terms of highest academic degree, there is no significant difference in the perception of work-related behaviors among Bachelor, Master and Doctor degree holders. In term of level in the organization, there is no significant difference in the perception of work-related behaviors between the Administrators and Faculty member. In term of generation group, Builders’ choices on work-related behaviors differ significantly with Boomers and Gen-Xers, but not with Millennials. Boomers differ significantly with Builders and Gen-Xers, but not with Millennials. Gen Xers’ differ significantly with Builders and Boomers but not with Millennials. Millennials has no significant difference with Builders, Boomers, and Gen Xers.

On the perception of the millennials they from older generations in terms of (top three answers)

Social interaction: Openness to individual differences; socialize/interact with the new generation; and be more approachable and accommodating. Dealing with change: Willingness to accept changes, learn to adopt, be flexible; keep up with technology and innovation; and integrate new trends with traditional practices.

Decision making: Asking individual views/ideas before making final decision; should share their wisdom and experiences; and being fair always. Organization/management style: Should not be authoritarian; being competitive, go with modernization, to updated, not afraid of change, open to risks and possibilities; and should show professionalism. Work habits: Give time to themselves, they work too hard; they should be more innovative and technologically updated, accept new things; maintain professionalism.

On strategies that can developed to strengthen the positive perceptions of the older generations in terms of (top three answers)

Social Interaction; Groups activities; being open-minded; and observance of proper communication. Dealing with change: Being open-minded; group activities; and communication. Decision making: Collaboration and teamwork; being objective; and seminar, workshop, teambuilding. Organization/management style: Connect with the people; teambuilding/ coaching and mentoring; and transparency/being open. Work habits: Commitment, dedication; Motivation; and punctuality, respect for time.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of study, the following conclusions were drawn:

Regarding difference in the mindset of the respondents, the following conclusions are made

  • There is no significant difference in the mindset between the Administrators and Faculty members
  • There is significant difference in the mindset among Bachelors, Master, and Doctor Degree holders.
  • There is significant difference in the mindset among Builders, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials.Regarding difference in the behavioral skills of the respondents, the following conclusions are made.
  • There is no significant difference in the behavioral skills between Males and Females
  • There is no significant difference in the behavioral skills between Bachelors, Master, and Doctor Degree holders.
  • There is no significant difference in the behavioral skills among the Administrators and Faculty members
  • There is no significant difference in the behavioral skills among Builders, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials.Regarding difference in the perception of work-related behavior of the respondents, the following conclusions are made.
  • There is no significant difference in the perception of work-related behaviors between Males and Females.
  • There is no significant difference in the behavioral skills among Bachelors, Master, and Doctor Degree holders. There is no significant difference in the perception of work-related behaviors between the Administrators and Faculty members
  • There is significant difference in the perception of work-related behaviors among Builders, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials.

Recommendations

Based from the findings of the study as reflected by the above-cited conclusions, the researcher offers the following recommendations

  • Thinking Skill: To create highly innovative ideas, the extremes of difference should be considered. The more diverse the ideas, the more options are available. Combining seemingly irreconcilable thoughts is suggested. Thinking outside the box is now the modernistic approach in addressing issues and concerns. Although the traditional or the “safe” decisions are usually adopted, alternative options should be considered. In implementing this approach, however, the administrator should be open about it and there should have a policy that will encourage creative thinking in solving problems. Personnel are usually hesitant to offer unconventional ideas because of the prevailing culture in the organization which advocate well-known and proven effective thinking.
  • Feeling Skill: Fruitful events and meaningful successes should be highlighted to give motivation to the staff and give better perception of them. This includes timely recognition of job-well done and accomplished plans ahead of time. Late acknowledge of accomplishments may diminish its impact to the recipient. It should be a regular practice in the organization to give credit to where credit is due. Group or departmental recognition should also be encouraged to promote teamwork and positive group dynamics.
  • Knowing skill: All decision-making processes should be institutionalized so that it can be documented properly and can be used as reference in future decision-making activities. The documentation can be in the form of policy or manual that should be made accessible to those concerned. It is suggested that on-line version that is non-editable format of the manual be made available online. Ready access manual as references can proper guide personnel in their action and decision making.
  • Acting skill: In the planning of activities, Augustinian values of compassion and humility should be reflected. This should likewise be manifested among the personnel in their day to day affairs. An institution can be made well-known based on the image that they project in public and the brand they built over time. A positive image attracts more interested parties (students, investors, etc.) to be part of the institution. There is a strong competition among higher educational institutions and creating a unique trademark, not only on academic side but also on psychological and spiritual aspects, can help the school gain a competitive edge. Compassion and humility can also promote positive relationship with co-workers and in the community in general.
  • Trusting skill: Challenge the present organization by creating a “little” disturbance in the seemingly systematic process. The disturbance should be manageable and a ready solution should be available if problem arises. This strategy will promote and enhances the creativity of the staff. The management should consider allowing department initiative, without their control and restriction, to settle their own problems. Doing this will make the staff feel that they are being trusted, hence they will do something that will make them feel worthy of the trust.
  • Being Skill: Creating an environment wherein people can communicate freely regardless of levels in the organization. Evaluation of performances should be used as basis in improvement and quality assurance. It should not incriminate low-performing staff nor should it be a sole basis in giving recognition, promotion or demotion. Some institution used work performance as the only basis of evaluation. If they staff were rated low, the overall performance of the staff will be indicative of that rating. Other areas of work performance should be considered for a more holistic and realistic and realistic representation of the real worth of the staff