This research focused in determining the relationship between the related factors and the academic performance of randomly selected intermediate pupils in three (3) selected public schools in Porac East District school year 2013-2014. Three hundred twelve (312) pupil respondents; hence, thirty six (36) teacher respondents were asked to answer the questionnaires. The major findings indicated the following conclusions; Respondents belonged to small sized families along with their parents who are living together. In relation to parents’ profile, they achieved low educational level. In relation to the other related factors, teachers are assuring quality education even though opportunities on trainings are limited to few. Also, instructional materials were rated as always. Concerning to the pupil-teacher ratio, majority belonged in bigger classes at the same time their assessment for school facilities is adequate. Pertaining to the academic performance, it is described as good. In contrast, methods/strategies show significant relationship in the academic performance. Generally, the study concluded that there is no significant relationship exist between pupil, teacher and school related factors and pupils’ academic performance.
Academic Performance, Intermediate Pupils
Education is a crucial factor in the growth and development of one’s country. It plays a vital role in the development of human capital and is linked with an individual’s well-being and opportunities for better living (Battle and Lewis, 2002). It ensures the acquisition of knowledge and skills that enable individuals to increase their productivity and improve their quality of life. This increase in productivity also leads towards new sources of earning which enhances the economic growth of a country (Saxton, 2000). Economy growth depends always on the kind of education every citizen gains. This task lies in the nation’s educational system, which tries its best to provide the education needed by the majority of citizens.
The quality of students’ performance remains at top priority for educator, trainers, and researchers who have long been interested in exploring variables contributing effectively for quality of performance of learners. These variables are inside and outside school that affect students’ quality of academic achievement. These factors may be termed as student factors, family factors, school factors and teacher factors (Crosnoe et al, 2004). Generally these factors include age, gender, geographical belongingness, ethnicity, marital status, parents’ education level, parental profession, and income.
Unfortunately, defining and measuring the quality of education is not a simple issue and the complexity of this process increases due to the changing values of quality attributes associated with the different stakeholders’ view point (Blevins, 2009; Parri, 2006). The Department of Education (2002), is taking into consideration the basic concepts and philosophies of learning vis-à-vis the need for the truly preparing its students for the complex and global world of work. About the factors that affect the learning and the performance. These factors may be termed as student factors, family factors, school factors and teacher factors (Crosno et al, 2004).
Parental education and family socioeconomic status level have positive correlations with the student’s quality of achievement (Jeynes, 2002). Home environment which affects the academic performance of students is another factor. Educated parents can provide such an environment that suits best for academic success of their children. The academic performance of students greatly depends upon the parental involvement in their academic activities to attain the higher level of academic success (Barnard, 2004; Shumox and Lomax, 2001). According to Krashen (2005), students whose parents are educated score higher on standardized tests than those whose parents were not educated. Educated parents can better communicate with their children regarding the school work, activities and the information being taught at school.
Above and beyond the other demographic factors, the effects of socioeconomic status are still prevalent at the individual level (Capraro, M., Capraro, R., and Wiggins, 2000). The socioeconomic status can be deliberated in a number of different ways; it is most often calculated by looking at parental education, occupation, income, and facilities used by individuals separately or collectively. It is also observed that parents who are economically disadvantaged are less able to afford the cost of living of their children at higher levels and consequently their children do not work at their fullest potential (Rouse and Barrow, 2006). The students with high level of socioeconomic status perform better than the students with low level of socioeconomic status (Garzon, 2006 et. al). Things which are considered as major factors that set back academic performance are the teachers and their efficiency and ineffective instructional methods. These derogatory accusations are unfair, since people knew that there are a lot of factors that needed to be considered, but research findings practical knowledge in literature researched (Wong, 2006), provided clear evidence that teachers have positively and significantly affects student’s achievement and self-concept.
Another research findings cited by Macalino et. al (2005), the Philippine Journal of Education (2005) stated that quality classroom instruction largely depends on quality teachers, schools and learners. The bulk of accountability however lies to teachers being indispensable character in the teaching learning process. No one has a better influence in learning than the teacher. In fact, the quality of the school and quality of classroom instruction is very much dependent upon the quality of teachers who teach in school essentially, quality output emanates from the quality inputs.
Teachers’ teaching experience also contributes to pupils’ performance. It is also a fact that older teachers are said to be more dedicated and devoted to the service. By virtue of their length of time and stay in the teaching service, they acquire more experiences. Another contributor variable is the school related factors that could give great influence in the academic performance of pupils like the books and school’s facilities. School setting and improvement was further clarified when Taylor (2012), postulated that the school in the twenty first century will need to continue to focus on a dual mission: providing classroom and school environment that address the development needs of all students and providing a “hub” for additional support services needed to ensure that high-risk students get on track academically toward a successful future. Public schools often experience lack of books, classrooms, and chairs which is one of the reasons, it is difficult to promote more learning. The national allocation given to education yearly is increasing; however, it appears insufficient or perhaps just mismanaged.
Another perspective is looking at the grades; we see that those from a single parent have the lowest grades, while those from two parent families have the highest grades (Rivera 2007). In sum, regardless of whether the focus is on time or money, children in single mother families have access to fewer resources than those living with two biological parents. Aside from size of the family and its structure, another study in a sense, the issue of unsatisfactory performance of the pupils reflects the inadequacy of both the teacher and the school. Accordingly, teachers do not qualify in terms of basic communication skills in English and knowledge of the content of the subject matter.
Acosta (2002), attempted to discover the teachers profile, competencies and students’ academic achievement in selected public schools in Bulacan. Based on her findings, she concluded that the low academic achievement of students despite the perceived high level of competency of their teachers implies that the latter have not been effective in attaining their objectives. Bernardo’s paper (2000), about the problem of learning, linked the problems of student’s achievement, of teaching and poor teaching practices. He believes that education in the Philippines is not designed in ways that are suited to how students and teachers can best develop their skills. He also presumed that poor quality of inputs to the learning process yield poor quality outputs, which explains the poor achievement.
Rivera (2007) investigated the relationship of the level of academic performance. Most of the respondents belong to the low-income families; Most of their parents finished high school; the level of academic performance of the students is good; the economic status and parents’ educational attainment do not affect the academic performance of pupils. As inferred from the observations and studies conducted by Ayson, Acosta, Bernardo, Mariano, Quizon and Rivera discussed and showed distinct similarities and differences with the present study in several aspects. The present study and the previous studies differed in the number of respondents and the year when the research was conducted. They likewise differ on the causes of factors that affect the academic performance. The researcher considered that there should be an answer to the reasons of the pupils’ low or high performance. The researcher further recognized the need to identify and examine those factors contributing to the decline of the quality of basic public education, hence, this study. Based on the foregoing discussion, the researcher found it vital to identify the factors affecting the academic performance of the intermediate pupils in selected public schools in Porac East District.
As shown in Error! Reference source not found., the study attempted to show the correlation between the related factors and the academic performance of the intermediate pupils. The related factors and the academic performance of the respondents were determined by administering questionnaires. The first frame contained the independent variable, that of, the pupil related factor include the size of family, parents educational attainment, and family income; the teacher related factor pertains to the educational qualification, length of teaching experience, seminars/conferences/trainings attended as well as teaching practices, and the school related factor refers to the teacher-pupil ratio and book-pupil ratio; also, adequacy of school facilities. The second frame depicted the dependent variable. Determining the academic performance of the pupils was the expected output of the study. This was inferred from the general weighted average which was cumulated together with their descriptive remarks.
Statement of the problem
1. What are the factors that affect the academic performance of the pupils in terms of:
1.1 Pupil related- factors
1.2 Size of the family;
1.3 Parent’s relationship;
1.4 Parent’s Profile;
1.4.1 Educational attainment of parents;
1.4.2 Parents’ occupation;
1.4.3 Income of the family?
1.2 Teacher related-factors
1.2.1 Educational qualification;
1.2.2 Length of teaching experience;
1.2.3 Number of relevant seminars/conferences/trainings attended;
1.2.4 Teaching methods & strategies used; and
1.2.5 Use of instructional materials?
1.3 School related- factors
1.3.1 Teacher-pupil ratio;
1.3.2 Textbook- Pupil ratio; and
1.3.3 Adequacy of School Facilities?
2. How may the academic performance of intermediate pupils be described?
3. Do the pupil, teacher and school related factors have significant relationship on the pupils’ academic performance?
Materials and Methods
The present study was an investigation of pupil, teacher and school-related factors that affect the quality of the academic performance of the intermediate pupils in the three selected public schools in Porac East District, Division of Pampanga during school year 2013-2014.The study employed descriptive-correlation research design. The descriptive method was used to identify and describe the factors that affect the academic performance of the intermediate pupils. The correlation design was used to know whether there was a relationship between the pupil, teacher, and school related-factors and pupil’s academic performance.
Locale of the study
The study was conducted from the three hundred twelve (312) intermediate pupils enrolled at the three selected public schools of Porac East District namely; Calzadang Bayu Elementary School, Manibaug paralaya Elementary School and Porac Central School, Division of Pampanga school year 2013-2014 and thirty six (36) teacher-respondents from the same selected schools. The pupil and teacher respondents were chosen from the three schools as initially explained in the scope and delimitation of this study. The researcher used stratified random sampling to avoid bias in the selection of sample. According to Mizner (2014), stratified sampling is a probability sampling technique wherein the researcher divides the entire population into different subgroups or strata, then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the different strata. Only fifteen percent (15%) of the total population or three hundred twelve (312) intermediate pupils were the respondents. There was one hundred ninety five (195) pupils from Manibaug Paralaya Elementary School, seventy one (71) from Calzadang Bayu Elementary School, and forty six (46) from Porac Central Elementary School. In addition, there were 100% or thirty six (36) teacher-respondents too who are actually handling the sample pupil respondents.
The questionnaire was the main data-gathering instrument used in the study which aimed to gather information needed in the study. It was one of the cheapest and most feasible ways of gathering data (Questionnaire, 2014). Unstructured interviews and ocular observations were also made to supplement the data gathered from the questionnaire. The questionnaire was consisted of the following parts: Part I contained the pupil- related factors such as size of the family, parent’s relationship, parents’ profile such as parents’ educational attainment, parents’ occupation, and income of the family. Part II pertained to the teacher- related factors educational qualification, length of teaching experience, number of relevant seminars/conferences/trainings attended, teaching methods & strategies, and instructional materials. Part III contained the school related-factors in terms of adequacy of facilities of the school and teacher-pupil ratio plus book- student ratio. Then, the school principal of each selected school was interviewed about their insights regarding the concerns encountered under the study.
The researcher classified, tallied, and tabulated the data collected. In analyzing and interpreting the information gathered, descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency, mean, standard deviation, Chi-square and Person r formula were used. To determine the actual sample from a given population for each school under this study, stratified random sampling was used.
Sample size of the strata = size of entire sample / population size
To determine the number of siblings, parents’ relationship, parents’ profile, income of the family, teacher-pupil ratio, textbook-pupil ratio, teachers’ educational qualification, length of teaching experience, and relevant seminars/conferences/trainings attended frequency counts and percentage were used.
To determine the adequacy of facilities, teaching methods/strategies being used,
and instructional material in classroom teaching weighted mean and verbal interpretation were used.
The academic performance of the respondents was described using the frequency counts, percent, mean and standard deviation.
Chi-square was used to determine the relationship between pupil’s academic performance and pupil-related, school-related and educational qualification of teacher
Chi-Correlation analysis is used to determine the relationship of the pupil’s academic performance and number of siblings, adequacy of facilities, and teacher related. To identify the relationship of the variables Person r formula was used.
Pearson r formula
Results and Discussion
Pupil Related- Factors
Size of the Family
A significant number of students, specifically 164, have 2 or 3 siblings.
The majority of the respondents, 84.62 have parents who live together. Most of the respondents received parental support in their studies.
Majority of the respondents’ parents are high school graduates. This may have to do with the job categories they belong. Majority of the respondents’ are employed in bluecollar jobs while majority of the mothers are unemployed. In relation to this, Majority of the respondents’ parents’ monthly income do not exceed 6000.
Teacher- Pupil Ratio
Of the 312 pupil respondents, 40.39 percent of them belong to a class of 50 students. This implies that majority of the respondents are in bigger classes.
Textbook- Pupil Ratio
Eighty seven percent of the respondents share a book with others. This clearly states that there is a scarcity of learning materials/ books in the public educational system.
In educational qualification, 55.56% of the respondents’ teachers had Masters’ degree units. For length of teaching experience, a significant number of teachers were considered experienced thus well-accustomed and fully aware of the demands of teaching.
Number of Relevant Seminars/Conferences/Trainings Attended
Majority or 91.6 % had not yet experienced attending provincial level training.
Teaching Methods & Strategies Being Used
Results connote that teachers make use of various teaching methods and strategies to facilitate learning and cater students’ individual learning styles and intelligences.
Use of Instructional Materials
Among the instructional materials used in classroom teaching, textbook were the most frequently usedSchool Related- Factors The over-all teacher-pupil ratio implies that majority of respondents are in bigger classes and the textbook- pupil ratio connotes that available books in schools were insufficient. There is a scarcity of instructional materials for pupils.
Adequacy of School Facilities
Adequacy of facilities as assessed by the studentrespondents connotes that the student-respondents were happy about their school facilities. Teacher-respondents reiterated the adequacy of facilities in school. These facilities are library, canteen, cafeteria, medical clinic, audio visual center, guidance area, home economics room/TLE room, Science laboratory, gymnasium/ covered court, restrooms, and classroom facilities.
The Academic Performance of Intermediate Pupils
Having the weighted mean of 80.68 and the standard deviation of 3.643, the academic performance of the respondents was good.
Relationship between Related Factors and Pupils’ Academic Performance
There is no significant relationship between respondents’ academic performance and the number of siblings the pupils have. Thus, the respondents’ numbers of siblings do not determine their academic performance. No significant relationship exists between the respondents’ academic performance and their parents’ marital status, educational attainment, occupation and income which imply that pupil-related factors are not predictors of the respondents’ academic performance. Between the respondents’ academic performance and adequacy of facilities, there is no significant relationship at all. This means that adequacy of facilitator is not a determinant of the respondents’ academic performance. There is no significant relationship between respondents’ academic performance and teacher related-factors like length of teaching experience and number of seminars attended. On the other hand, in regards to the teaching method/strategies used by teachers. Only items “Problem solving/inquiry, creative writing, exploring community resources, fieldtrip” show significant relationship on the academic performance of the respondents. No significant relationship also exists between the respondents’ academic performance and teacher-related factor like the use of instructional materials. This implies that the use of instructional materials was not a predictor or determiner of respondents’ academic performance. There is no significant relationship exists between the respondents’ academic performance and educational qualifications of their teachers. Thus, educational qualification of teachers was not a determinant of students’ academic performance. As reflected by the results, school facilities like library, canteen, cafeteria, medical clinic, audio visual center, guidance area, home economics room/TLE room, Science laboratory, gymnasium/ covered court, restrooms, and classroom facilities are described as adequate.
Based on the summary of findings, the researcher came up with the following generalizations:
Based on the findings of the study and the above stated conclusions, the following are recommended:
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