Croton spp. has been used medicinally in the treatment of a variety of ailments, which include cancer, constipation, and diabetes. Various parts of the plant are used in Nigeria as antimicrobial, arbortifacient, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic agents. Dried leaves of Croton penduliflorus (Hutch) was powdered, extracted and concentrated, and the aqueous fraction partitioned into dichloromethane, ethylacetate and n-butanol. The following parametes were determined, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity, Free Radical Antioxidant Power, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. The aqueous and dichloromethane fractions gave the highest yields, and the crude extracts exhibited a high amount of total phenol and total flavonoids. The crude extract and dichloromethane fractions showed a high scavenging activity for ABTS and DPPH, while the crude extract and its fractions demonstrate significant radical scavenging ability and antioxidant capacity which were due to the presence of phenols and flavonoids.
Cathranthus roseus comprise a group of alkaloids mainly vincristine, vinblastine, resperine, ajmalcine. Here we review the recent advances in the biosynthetic pathway of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) in C. roseus, and the identification and characterization of the corresponding enzymes involved in this pathway. Vincristine and vinblastine are used for treatment of various type of cancer such as Hodgkin’s disease, breast cancer, leukemia etc. Madagascar periwinkle is poisonous if ingested or smoked. The pharmacognostical aspects of cathranthus roseus alkaloid cover botanical, phytochemical and analytical data. It has high medicinal value which needs to be explored extensively.
The density, viscosity and ultrasonic velocity have been measured for ternary mixture of Methanol+Ethanol+Benzene of fixed equal volumes of the components at temperatures of 303.15 K, 308.15 K, 313.15 K, 318.15 K, 323.15 K and 328.15 K. The experimental data have been used to calculate some acoustic and thermodynamic parameters: adiabatic compressibility, free length, free volume, and internal pressure. It was observed that adiabatic compressibility (β), free length (Lf), and free volume (Vf), increased with increase in temperature, whereas internal pressure (πi) decreased with increase in temperature. Some probable reasons for the increase or decrease of acoustic and thermodynamic parameters with temperature change are presented.
We applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to study the main constituents in the male Carica papaya leaves and flowers in the mid infrared region 4000–650 cm –1 . The findings indicated that FTIR spectrum can discriminate and identify various functional groups present in the pawpaw parts.
Four water-soluble vitamins, thiamine (vitamin B1 ), riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) niacin (vitamin B3) and folic acid (vitamin B9) were analyzed by HPLC. Niacin and folic acid were detected in the leaves at a concentration of 7.08 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively, while only folic acid could be detected in the flowers at a high concentration of 510.34 mg/100 g dry weight. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis of the samples showed that the leaves and flowers contain elements like K, Na, Mn, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ca, Cd and Ni in various proportions, with the leaves containing higher concentrations of Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe and Ni than the flowers.
Several topical formulations are available in the market for the management of pain. With the aim of increasing efficacy and decreasing side effects, herbal drugs are being researched for various therapeutic applications This study involved comparison of marketed formulations: Trois, Volini, Moov and Fast-Relief. Trois is a proprietary herbal product indicated for the the management of painful states. The rat formalin test was utilized as the animal model for pain and observations of composite pain score, number of paw licks and pain response latency were recorded in the early and late phases. Results of the present study indicated that Trois was superior in management of acute and chronic pain states as indicated by pain response latency, number of paw licks and composite pain score. Pain scoring indicated that all formulations, except Volini, were significantly better than control in the early phase with Trois showing the highest efficacy. Late phase observations suggested that all formulations were significantly better, with Trois maintaining its higher efficacy. Trois reduced the number of licks and pain response latency to a significant extent in the early and late phases whereas the effect of Moov, Volini and Fast Relief, were significant only in the late phase. Hence, it can be concluded that Trois is a better herbal topical pain relief alternative as compared to other commercial products.
The native medicinal plants study was carried out in adjoining tribal areas of Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh during the month of January, 2014 – June, 2014. The information related to medicinal species which are used to cure common ailments and diseases were collected by the local people of study area. A total of 118 plants belonging to 55 families are listed in this paper.
The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Trewia nudiflora in alloxan (ALX) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was confirmed after 5 days of single intraperitoneal injection of ALX (140 mg/kg) in albino Wister rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Trewia nudiflora (100 and 200 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) orally administered daily for 15 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 1, 10 and 15 days respectively. On the 15th day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for the determination of high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), total glycerides (TG) and total proteins (TP). Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Trewia nudiflora at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed significant reduction is blood glucose, lipid when compared to diabetic control group. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Trewia nudiflora was also studied. We concluded that aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Trewia nudiflora possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities.
The present study highlights the medicinal plants used for treating gynecological disorders by the tribal communities in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. This paper enumerates the traditional uses of 38 plant species belonging to 37 genera under 29 families used to cure women problems. Three new medicinal plants and 54 new practices were also reported.
Diabetes mellitus is one the most common diseases in the world. It is assumed that in near future the number of people affected by this disease will reach over 1 billion. There is no permanent treatment to this disease apart from some dietary controlling, exercising and few oral hypoglycemic agents. Use of various plants helps in preventing the increase of blood-glucose level. This review article aims to cover few very important plants which help in reducing the glucose levels in blood from the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa. The plants reviewed here are very common to the region and poses no threat to the human body
The rise in infectious diseases pose a great problem to society and microbial resistance is growing and the outlook for the use of antimicrobial drugs in the future is still uncertain. Therefore, actions must be taken to reduce this problem, for example, to control the use of antibiotic, develop research to better understand the genetic mechanisms of resistance, and to continue studies to develop new drugs, either synthetic or natural. Literally thousands of plant species have been tested against hundreds of bacterial strains in vitro and many medicinal plants are active against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. However a very few of these medicinal plant extracts have been tested against specific disease causing resistant bacteria. In this study, we have evaluated two same extracts of Ficus carica and Vitis vinifera against drug resistant uropathogens. The ethanol extract fractions obtained were analysed for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion assay and MIC values of the fractions were appreciable. Hence it can be suggested that Ficus carica fruits and Vitis vinifera peels can be a potential source of therapeutic drugs for urinary tract infection. Further investigations to discover the active compound that may serve as lead compounds for drug development are under progress.