Key Words

Native Medicinal Plants, Cure Common Ailments, Palakonda Division, Srikakulam District.

Introduction

The use of plants as a relief for human suffering is as old as human especially, in India and China; people are using plants in organized healthcare for over 5000 years. Local communities mainly depend on traditional remedies, largely based on plants, for immediate access to relatively safe, cost effective, efficacious and culturally acceptable solutions to primary health care. In the oral traditions, local communities of all ecosystems right from transHimalayas down to coastal plains have discovered the medicinal uses of thousands of plants found locally. India has one of the richest plant medicinal cultures in the world. This is a culture of tremendous contemporary relevance because, it can on one hand ensure health security to millions of people on the other hand it can provide new and safe herbal drugs to the entire world. World Health Organization (WHO) notes that out of 119 plants derived Pharmaceutical medicines, about 747 are used in modern medicine in way that correlated directly with their traditional uses as plant medicines by native cultures. C.S. Reddy et al. 2000, contains a note on medicinal uses of Hildegard populifolia and Pterocarpus santalinus: Red listed and endemic taxa in Andhra Pradesh. S.N. Jadhav et al. (2001) proceedings of the workshop on conservation Assessment and Management Planning (CAMP) for medicinal plants of Andhra Pradesh. C.S. Reddy et al. (2001) enumerated the threatened medicinal plants of Andhra Pradesh. R. Jeevan & Raju. (2001) described certain potential crude drugs used by tribals of Nallamalais, Andhra Pradesh for Skin diseases. K.N. Reddy et al. (2002) reported the ethno botany of some of the orchids of Andhra Pradesh while S.N. Jadhav & K.N. Reddy (2002) presents a paper on In-Situ Conservation of Medicinal Plants in Andhra Pradesh. Banerjee (1977) & Gupta et al. (1997) has reported the ethno botany of Araku valley in Visakhapatnam district. T.A. Reddy (1980) note down some medicinal plants of Polavaram Agency, West Godavari district. Nisteswar & Kumar (1980, 1983) reported the phytomedicine from Rampa and Addateegala Agency, East Godavari district. Rao & Harasreeramulu (1985) described the selected medicinal plants of Srikakulam district. Sudhakar & Rao (1985) enlisted the medicinal plants of East Godavari while Aruneekumar et al. (1990) enumerated the medicinal plants of Kakinada.

Study Area

Palakonda is a town, Revenue Division and a mandal in the Srikakulam district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Palakonda mandal is bordered by Veeraghattam, Seethampeta, Burja and Regidi Amadalavalasa mandals of Srikakulam district. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India, Palkonda Taluk was in Vizagapatam district with a total area of 502 square miles (1,300 km2). The cultivated land is irrigated by the Nagavali River. The Agency area contains about 56 square miles (150 km2) of Reserved Forest. The population in 1901 was 215,376 compared with 201,331 in 1891. There were two towns Palkonda and Razam and 334 villages. The Agency area had population of about 11,000 people, chiefly Savaras living in 106 villages. The greater part of Taluk was held on Ryotwari and belongs to Rajas of Bobbili and Vizianagram. It was within Ganjam District of Orissa state till 1950 when Srikakulam district was formed.

Methodology

The study was conducted during the month of January – June 2014, carried out in adjoining tribal areas of Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh. The information on local use and diseases cured was collected using structured questionnaire from the local people. The plant collections were identified with the help of Flora of Andhra Pradesh and herbarium at Andhra University. A total of 118 species have been recorded and enumerated with its family name, local name, parts used, disease/ailment and uses (table 1).

Table 1

Native Medicinal Plants – Around Palakonda Division of Srikakulam District

S.NO. BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME FAMILY NAME USE FUL PART MEDICINAL USE
1 Abrus precatorius Gurivinda Fabaceae Seed Paralysis
2 Acacia nilotica Nalla thumma Mimosaceae Bark Diabetes
3 Achyranthes aspara Utthareni Amaranthaceae Leaves Obesity
4 Acorus calamu Vasa Araceae Rhizome Brain tonic, Cold
5 Adhatoda vasica Addasara Acanthaceae leaves TB, Bronchitis and Asthma
6 Aegle marmelos Maredu Rutaceae Leaves Diabetes
7 Agave cantula kiththa nara Agavaceae Leaves Syphilis
8 Alangium salviifolium Udugu chettu Alangiaceae Bark Skin disease
9 Allium sativum Thella vulli Liliaceae Bulb Rheumatoid Arthritis, Asthma
10 Aloe barbadensis Kalabanda Liliaceae Leaves Diabetes
11 Alpinia galanga Dumpa rastram Zingiberaceae Rhizome Diabetes
12 Alstonia veneneta Edakula pala Apocyanaceae Fruit Syphilis
13 Alternanthera sessilis Ponna ganti kura Amaranthaceae Leaves Opthalmic disease
14 Ammania baccifera Agni vendrapaku Lythraceae Root Cancer
15 Amorphophalus folious Kanda Araceae Corm Rheumatoid Arthritis
16 Andrographis paniculata Nelevemu Acanthaceae Leaves Diabetes
17 Andrographis paniculata Nelavemu Acanthaceae Plant Dysentery,Dyspepsia,Diabates
18 Annona squamosa Seetha phalam Annonaceae Root Abortion, Dandruff, Lice
19 Argemone mexicana Balu rakkasa Papavaraceae Leaves Skin disease
20 Argyreia nervosa Chandra podi Convolvulaceae Root and Seed Diabetes
21 Aristilochia indica Eswari Aristolochiaceae Leaves Snake bite
22 Aristolochia bracteolata Gadida gadapaku Aristolochiaceae Leaves Eczema
23 Asparagu racemosus Pilli teegalu Liliaceae Tuberous root Diabetes, Leucorrhoea
24 Atlantia monophylla Adavi nimma Rutaceae Fruit peel oil Rheumatoid Arthritis
25 Azadirachta indica Vepa Meliaceae Leaves Diabetes
26 Azima tetracantha Uppu kampa Salvodoraceae Leaves and Roots Rheumatoid Arthritis
27 Bacopa monnieri sambani chettu Scrophulariaceae Leaves Diabetes, Brain tonic and Diuretic
28 Balanites roxburghii Gara chettu Balanitaceae Fruit, Bark,Seed Leprosy, Diabates
29 Barberis aristata kasturi pasupu Berbaridaceae Rhizome Diabetes
30 Bauhinia purpurea Deva kanchanam Caesalpiniaceae Stem bark Obesity
31 Bauhinia vahli Addaku Caesalpiniaceae Root Syphilis, Dysentry
32 Benincasa hispida Bhudida gummadi kaya Cucurbitaceae Fruit Diabates, Piles
33 Blumia mollis Kukka pogaku Asteracea Leaves Cooling effect, Jaundice
34 Boerhaavia diffusa Atika mamidi Nyctaginaceae Root Asthma, Jaundice
35 Boswellia serrata Guggila Burseraceae Gum resin Rheumatoid Arthritis
36 Brassica nigra Nalla avalu Brassicaceae Seed Rheumatoid Arthritis
37 Butea monosperma Modugu Fabaceae Leaves Diabetes
38 Caesalpinia bonduc Gachcha kaya Caesalpiniaceae Seed Abortion
39 Calotropis gigantia Jilledu Asclepiadaceae Root Rheumatoid Arthritis
40 Capsicum annum Mirapa Solanaceae Dry fruits Rheumatoid Arthritis
41 Cassia auriculata Thangedu Caesalpiniaceae Flower bud Diabetes
42 Cassia fistula Rela Caesalpiniaceae Root bark Diabetes, Jaundice
43 Cassia occidentalis kasintha Caesalpiniaceae Seed Cough
44 Catheranthes roseus Billa ganneru Apocyanaceae Leaves Diabetes and Cancer
45 Celastrus paniculata Palleru thivva Celastraceae Stem bark Abortifacient
46 Centella asiatica Saraswathi aku Apiaceae Leaves Diabetes and Brain tonic
47 Cinnamomum tamala Dalchina chekka Lauraceae Leaves Diabetes
48 Cissampelos pareira Visha boddi Menispermaceae Root Rheumatoid Arthritis
49 Cissus repens Kuppirodda Vitaceae Root Rheumatoid Arthritis
50 Clitoria ternata Sankupuvvu Fabaceae Root bark Rheumatoid Arthritis
51 Coccina grandis Kakidonda Cucurbitaceae Root, Leaves and Fruit Diabetes
52 Cocculus hirsutus Dusara teega Menispermaceae Leaves Diabetes
53 Coleus amboinicus Vamaku Lamiaceae Leaves Cough, Asthma
54 Commifera mukul Guggulu Burseraceae Gum resin Rheumatoid Arthritis
55 Costus speciosus Bokachika dhumpa Zingiberaceae Root and Rhizome Bronchitis,piles,Skin disease
56 Curculigo orchioides Nelathadi Hypoxidaceae Tuberous Root Piles, Scorpion sting, Asthma
57 Curcuma longa Pasupu Zingiberaceae Rhizome Diabetes
58 Cymbopogan martinii Nimma gaddi Poaceae Leaves Bronchitis, Fever
59 Cyptolepis buchnani Adavi pala theega Asclepiadaceae Root Rheumatoid Arthritis
60 Datura metal Ummetha Solanaceae Leaves and fruits Rheumatoid Arthritis
61 Dichrostachys cinerea Veluthuru chettu Mimosaceae Root Rheumatoid Arthritis
62 Eclipta alba Gunta galaga raku Asteracea Leaves Blackening of hair, Jaundice
63 Erythrina variegata Baditha Fabaceae Stem bark Leucorrhoea
64 Euphorbia hirta Chukka mokka Euphorbiaceae Leaves Leucorrhoea
65 Evolvulus alsinoides Vishnu kranthi Convolvulaceae Leaves Brain tonic, Jaundice
66 Ficus racemosa Madi Moraceae Root latex Diabetes
67 Ficus religiosa Ravi Moraceae Unripe fruit Diabetes, Paralysis
68 Gloriosa superba Nabhi Liliaceae Leaves Leprosy, Piles and Mumps
69 Gymnema sylvestre Podapatri Asclepiadaceae Leaves Diabetes and Diuretic
70 Helicteres isora Nuli thada Sterculiaceae Root bark Diabetes
71 Hemidesmus indicus Sugandhi pala Periplocaceae Root Blood purification
72 Hygrophila auriculata Niti gobbi Acanthaceae Seed Gonorrhoea
73 Ichnocarpus frutescens Nalla teega Apocyanaceae Leaves and fruits Diabetes
74 Indigofera tinctoria Neeli Fabaceae Root Obesity, Asthma
75 Jatropa curcas Pedda nepalam Euphorbiaceae Stem bark Cough, Teeth infections
76 Kydia calycina Konda pathi Malvaceae Leaves Body pains
77 Lawsonia inermis Gorintaku Lythraceae Leaves Jaundice
78 Mangifera indica Mamidi Anacardiaceae Leaf base Diabetes
79 Manilkara hexandra pala chettu Sapotaceae Stem Motions control and sperm production
80 Mimosa pudica Aththi pathi Mimosaceae Root Contraceptives
81 Momordica charantia Kakara kaya Cucurbitaceae Fruit Diabetes
82 Moringa oleifera Munaga Moringaceae Root Cold
83 Mucuna prurita Durada gondi kaya Fabaceae Seed Sperm production
84 Mukia madraspatana Potti budama Cucurbitaceae Leaves and seed Diabetes
85 Musa paradisiaca Arati Musaceae Flower bud Diabetes
86 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Pari jatham Nyctanthaceae Flower Skin disease and Blood purification
87 Ocimum americaum Bhu thulasi Lamiaceae Leaves Cooling effect
88 Ocimum basillicum Sabja mokka Lamiaceae Seed Cooling effect
89 Opuntia dillenii Naga jemudu Cactaceae Stem Contraceptives
90 Phyllanthes amarus Nelvusirika Euphorbiaceae Whole plant Diabetes, Jaundice
91 Phyllanthes emblica Usiri Euphorbiaceae Fruit Vitamin C and immunity
92 Picrorhiza scrophularifolia Katuka rohini Scrophulariaceae Root Diabetes
93 Piper betel Thamala paku Piperaceae Leaves Cold
94 Piper longum Pippallu Piperaceae Plant Cough and Cold
95 Plumbago zeylanica Chitra mulam Plumbaginaceae Leaves Cancer and Digestion
96 Polygonum glabrum Neeti ganneru Polygonaceae Root Jaundice
97 Pongamia pinnata kanuga Fabaceae Branches Dental infections
98 Prosopis cineraria Jammi chettu Mimosaceae Root bark Leucorrhoea
99 Psoralea corylifolia Bavanchalu Fabaceae Seed Skin disease
100 Pterocarpus marsupium Yegisa Fabaceae Wood Diabetes
101 Rauvolfia serpentina Sarpagandi Apocyanaceae Bark Dog bite, Heart ailment, Snake bite
102 Ricinus communis Amudamu Euphorbiaceae Seed Jaundice
103 Sesbania grandiflora Avisa Fabaceae Leaves Gall bladder stones, small pox
104 Sida cordata Gayapaku Malvaceae Leaves Paralysis
105 Strychnos nux-vomica Mushidi Loganiaceae Leaves and stem Scorpion ting
106 Syzygium cumini Neredu Myrtaceae Seed Diabetes
107 Terminalia bellarica Thani chettu Combretaceae Seed Digestion, Gastric
108 Terminelia chebula Karakaya Combretaceae Fruit Diabetes, Cough
109 Tinospora cordifolia Tippa teega Menispermaceae Stem Diabetes and Fever
110 Tylophora indica Gori pala Asclepiadaceae Leaves Bronchital allergy
111 Urgenea indica Adavi ulli Liliaceae BUlb Snake bite
112 Vetiveria zizanioides Vatti veru Poaceae Root Fever and Cooling effect
113 Vitex negundo Vavili Verbenaceae Leaves Body pains
114 Vitex peducularis Kaad vavili Verbenaceae Stem Blood purification
115 Withania somnifera Aswaganda Solanaceae Root AIDS ( Immunity Improving)
116 Wrightia tinctoria Ankudu chettu Apocyanaceae Latex Wounds andCuts
117 Xanthium strumarium Marula mathangi Asteracea PLant Malaria
118 Zyziphus mauritiana Regu chettu Rahmnaceae Root Malaria

Result & Discussion

The present investigation comprises 118 species of Native medicinal plant species belonging to 107 genera and 55 families of Palakonda Division of Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh. For each species botanical name, family, local name, parts used and ailments treated are provided. Traditional healers are using these plants to cure many diseases like Stomachache, Diarrhea, Heart Ailments, Headache, Fertility, Problems Skin Problems, Cold, Fever, Cough, Jaundice, Wounds, Diabetes, Obesity, Arthritis, Cancer, Asthma, Bone Fractures, Piles, Snake and Scorpion bites etc., These plants used for dominated disease like Diabetes 37, Rheumatoid arthritis The most dominant families in the study were, Fabaceae 10, Caesalpiniaceae 6, Euphorbiaceae, Liliaceae and Apocyanaceae 5, Asclepiadaceae 4, Mimosaceae 4, Cucurbitaceae 4. Depending upon the plant parts used leaf 40, root 30, Stem bark 14, Seeds 11, Fruits 10, Rhizome 5 and whole plant 4 etc. Most of the herbal remedies are taken orally.

Figure:1

The results indicate that plenty of medicinal plants were found in the study area and used by the traditional ways to treat a wide spectrum of human ailments. Folk medicines were found to play important role in the life of ethnic people. Aggressive civilization, rapid growth of industrialization and pollution are important reasons for the loss of different species and cause danger to the biodiversity. Preservation of indigenous plants and to identify on different plants are compulsory, which can give good drug with fewer side effects in cure of various ailments. The study thus underscores the potentials of the ethno medicinal research and the need for the documentation of indigenous healthcare knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization.

Figure:2

Figure:3

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the local and tribal people of the district have very good knowledge on the use of medicinal plants. But such knowledge of medicinal plants is restricted to a few persons in a rural area. The destructive harvesting of the medicinal plants by the maximum use of underground parts from the wild may lead to extinction of the species in the future. As demand for medicinal plants are ever increasing and these resources depleting from the nature. Therefore, there is a need to generate awareness among the local communities towards the sustainable utilization and conservation of medicinal plants.

Acknowledgment

Authors are thankful to the authorities of Andhra Pradesh forestry for permission and help during explorations.