Open Access Journals



Title : Groundwater resources assessment through piezometry and geophysics: The case of a coastal alluvial aquifer in Eastern-Central Greece
Authors : Lappas Ioannis,Kallioras Andreas

The results of a groundwater and geophysical research program including water table measurements and geoelectrical soundings respectively in the area of Atalanti coastal area, Central Greece, are presented in this essay. Seventy one (71) boreholes were used to measure the water table and four (4) geophysical soundings took place to estimate the alluvial basin's thickness as well as the the impermeable background depth. As a result numerous piezometric curves were drawn in a GIS environment using geostatistical analysis (Kriging method) and the groundwater flow direction was determined as well as the aquifer's discharge/recharge. Also, the hydrolithological formations were classified based on their hydraulic conductivity and permeability and various aquifers were delineated according to their water-bearing potential (two porous, three karstic and some secondary but of limited hydrogeological interest fractured aquifers). In the study area where alluvial deposits prevail unconfined to semi-confined aquifers (fine sands, clays, silts towards the coastal zone) are developed, whereas once marly formations prevail (Neogene sediments), confined aquifer of low hydro-capacity and limited yield is developed. The piezometric surfaces through years did not seem to significantly differ, fluctuating only between the wet and dry period on an annual basis. In addition, a gradual water table decline can be observed in some coastal areas indicating the seawater intrusion due to overpumping. In general, the water table in the coastal zone ranges from 1 to 2.5m above sea level, whereas in the middle of the valley ranges between 4 and 12m. The hydraulic gradient varies from 2.3‰ in the northwestern part to 1.2‰ in the central part of the area, while towards the coast the hydraulic gradient is below 0.5‰. Through geophysics, the apparent specific resistivity was assessed so as to distinguish the tectonic discontinuities and the geological formations within the alluvial basin both vertically and horizontally. However, only within the alluvial basin could the water table be measured because of the absence of boreholes elsewhere since neither settlements nor agricultural areas exist. Taking into consideration both the piezometry and the geophysics all kind of groundwater resources could be approximately calculated, that is, the regulatory, the permanent or geological and the exploitable ones. Once calculated sustainable groundwater management and rational use of groundwater can be implemented since groundwater abstractions can be controlled.

Keywords : Piezometric Curves ,Groundwater Flow ,Groundwater Resources , Geophysical Soundings , Apparent Specific Resistivity ,Impermeable
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Title : Trends of temperature at high- and low-densely populated divisions in Bangladesh
Authors : Karno Kumar Mondal,Md. A. E. Akhter,Md. Nazrul Islam

Trend, Temperature, Mann-Kendall test, Sen's slope estimate, Bangladesh:The present study is carried out to determine the trends in changes in temperature at Dhaka and Khulna divisions in Bangladesh using non parametric Mann-Kendall test for the period 1960-2015. Temperature is considered as one of the most important climatic variables in terms of climate change. Results show increasing trends in all monsoon seasons (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon season) for both divisions. Highest increasing rate is found in post monsoon season at Dhaka division with Sen’s slope estimate 0.27 ºC/decade which is statistically significant at 99% level. Winter season shows increasing trend at Dhaka division whereas decreasing trend at Khulna division. The highest decreasing rate at Khulna division is -0.06 ºC/decade which is statistically insignificant. In the month of January, trends of both divisions are decreasing. The increasing trend in central and high populated-industrial Dhaka division and decreasing trend in southern low populated-nonindustrial Khulna division is due to characteristics of the two divisions. The warmest year is 2010 for both Khulna and Dhaka divisions. The coldest year is 1981 for Khulna division while 1971 for Dhaka. The decadal change of temperature indicates that the colder season experiences lowest temperature whereas warmer season experiences highest temperature day by day. This is a clear indication of climate change in the region. The study for the trend of another valuable climatic parameter precipitation is recommended to understand the impact of climate change across the country.

Keywords : Trend , Temperature , Mann-Kendall test , Sen's slope estimate , Bangladesh:The present study is carried out to determine the trends in changes in temperature at Dhaka and Khulna divisions in Bangladesh using non parametric Mann-Kendall test for the period 1960-2015. Temperature is considered as one of the most important climatic variables in terms of climate change. Results show increasing trends in all monsoon seasons (pre-monsoon , monsoon and post monsoon season) for both divisions. Highest increasing rate is found in post monsoon season at Dhaka division with Sen’s slope estimate 0.27 ºC/decade which is statistically significant at 99% level. Winter season shows increasing trend at Dhaka division whereas decreasing trend at Khulna division. The highest decreasing rate at Khulna division is -0.06 ºC/decade which is statistically insignificant. In the month of January , trends of both divisions are decreasing. The increasing trend in central and high populated-industrial Dhaka division and decreasing trend in southern low populated-nonindustrial Khulna division is due to characteristics of the two divisions. The warmest year is 2010 for both Khulna and Dhaka divisions. The coldest year is 1981 for Khulna division while 1971 for Dhaka. The decadal change of temperature indicates that the colder season experiences lowest temperature whereas warmer season experiences highest temperature day by day. This is a clear indication of climate change in the region. The study for the trend of another valuable climatic parameter precipitation is recommended to understand the impact of climate change across the country.
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Title : Impact of Participatory Integrated Watershed Management on Hydrological, Environment of Watershed and Socio-Economic, Case Study at Somodo Watershed, South Western Ethiopia.
Authors : Gizaw Tesfaye,Yalemtsehay Debebe,Tesfaye Yakob

Watershed is not simply the hydrological unit but also socio- political and ecological entity which plays crucial role in determining food, social, and economical security and provides life support services to rural people and its management through integrated participatory approach is useful strategies for reducing poverty, improving livelihood resilience and sustainability. Integrated and sustainable watershed management is an effective way to address complex water and land resource challenges and its implementation has not been successful in most countries including Ethiopia. Also there is no enough understanding on integrated watershed management in most parts of the country including South-Western part of Ethiopia. This paper mainly aimed to assess the suitability, acceptability and impact of participatory integrated watershed management at Somodo experimental watershed. Primary data was obtained through semi-structured questionnaires and group discussion with experimental group (60 HH) and control group (40 HH).These data were arranged with the help of Microsoft excel and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. The study was under taken for five years, 2011 to 2015, through managing the watershed by intensifying technologies to solve the identified problems of the watershed, and to improve the livelihood of the community through participatory and integrated approach. Soil erosion, decline in soil fertility, deforestation, crop and animal disease, fodder and forage problems are the leading ones. Major actions taken to overcome these problems were introduction of biological and physical Soil and water conservation measures

Keywords : Participatory integrated watershed management , Impact assessment and Experimental watershed
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Manuscript Code : fertility enhancement activities, establishment of community nursery and plantation of niche compatible multipurpose trees, introduction high yielding crops, introduction of apiculture and poultry technologies, and introduction of improved energy saving stoves. The study showed that participatory integrated watershed management have a Positive impact on hydrology, socio-economic and environment of the watershed. And the study recommended participatory integrated watershed management for successive development of watersheds with the problem similar to Somodo watershed. Any study, model based, in the watershed on hydrological behavior and others is also appreciable.


Title : Community Resilience to Climate-related Disasters in Bulakan, Bulacan: Implications for Disaster Management Service Provision
Authors : Ericson H. Peñalba

The vulnerability of rural and coastal communities to extreme climate change impacts poses serious concerns about the ability of people to build resilience. Using an ecological approach in understanding how community resilience is situated within multiple settings, this qualitative study examines the lay accounts of 30 residents and authorities who experienced three major natural disasters. A thematic network analysis of the interview responses surface six dominant organizing themes: sense of preparedness, sense of togetherness, effective leadership of local authorities, service provision at the macro level, rebuilding in a self-reliant manner, and preparedness for future disasters. The dominant themes are considered relevant in sustaining the capacity of the participants to respond to, cope with, and recover from adversity. The findings reveal that collective actions, which are further strengthened by the presence of care, support, and assistance emerging from every system level, support community resilience. Hence, disaster management interventions necessitate increased efforts for the implementation of awareness and sensitization campaigns, additional social welfare services, and information dissemination activities through the use of published communication materials.

Keywords : Community resilience , natural disasters , disaster management , thematic network analysis
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Title : Spatial-Temporal variation of benthic-community in Gopalpur coastal sediment, East coast of India
Authors : Satyabrata Das Sharma,Lakshman Nayak,Upananda Mohanty,Mitali Priyadarsini Pati

The study on the macrobenthos of Gopalpur coast, Odisha, East coast of India was undertaken during January 2015 to December 2015. The environmental parameters, sediment characteristics and macrobenthic organisms were collected from 3 stations. The physico-chemical parameters with relation to benthic community structure were studied. The salinity and sediment texture were the most important parameter at Gopalpur coast controlled the distribution and community structure of benthos. The annual rainfall at Gopalpur varied from 001.4-230.7mm. The temperature, salinity, DO, BOD showed spatio-temporal variation. The air and water temperature of Gopalpur coast varied from 26 to 34.20C and 27.5 to 30.20C respectively. The pH of Gopalpur coast varied from 7.2 to 8.3. The percentage composition of sand, silt and clay were in a range of 81.71 to 98.83%, 1.04 to 12.22%, 0.13 to 6.07% respectively. The salinity of Gopalpur coast varied from 5.3 to 31.7 PSU. The concentration of dissolved oxygen varied from 5.4 to 7.2 ml/l. The Bio-chemical oxygen demand ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 ml/l. The diversity of macro benthos of Gopalpur coast varied from 3 to 7 groups belonging to 5 phyla and the population density varied from 550 to 1400 ind./m2 at different stations. In total 8 groups were recorded namely nematodes, polychaetes, decapods, gastropods, bivalves, amphipods, isopods and echinoderms. 30 species were observed under 4 groups, out of which 8 species belongs to decapods, 10 species belongs to gastropods, 11 species belongs to bivalves and only 1 species belongs to echinoderms. Benthic faunal assemblages showed almost similar pattern of distribution at station-I and II (exclusive marine), dominated by nematodes. The station-III (brackish water) was quite different from the station-I and II with different environment and environmental parameters and dominated by polychaetes. In overall observation at 3 stations of Gopalpur coast nematodes dominated in abundance with 9.43-81.82% followed by polychaetes (4.55-51.79%), decapods (0-23.81%), gastropods (0-16.98%), bivalves (0-13.11%), amphipods (0-12.50%) isopods (0-11.32%), and asteroids (0-3.33%). The main objective of the research is to provide a data base and information regarding benthic community structure and to assess the pollution load as it is one of the famous tourist spot of East coast of India.

Keywords : Benthic-community , Population , Environmental variables , Gopalpur Coast , East coast of India
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Title : Physico-Chemical, Heavy Metal and Microbiological Concentrations in Soil and Water Samples Around Veritas University Campus, Obehie, Southeastern Nigeria
Authors : H. O. Nwankwoala,P. O. Youdeowei,E. R. Daka

Surface water, soil microbiology, heavy metals, borehole, Pollution, Obehie: This study aims at evaluating the physico-chemical, heavy and microbiological concentrations in soil and water samples around Veritas University, Obehie, Abia State, Nigeriato prevent the risk on the public health.Standard sampling and analytical methods were employed during the study. Results of the study revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water samples were low (mostly < 0.001), and hydrocarbon were also below detection limit in all borehole samples. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water were also low, ranging from < 0.001 mg/l in some cases, with the highest single value being 0.165mg/l for iron. Total hydrocarbon content was also below detection levels in surface water showing unpolluted conditions.Heterotrophic bacteria densities were high in soil samples, ranging from 1.0 x 104 to 3.5 x 105 cfu/g soil. Densities of heterotrophic fungi were high in some locations, ranging from 1.0 x 103 to 1.5 x 105 cfu/g. Counts of petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were generally high. Percentage petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were greater than 1 % in all samples, except at one location. Microbial populations of soils particularly high in petroleum degraders (> 1 %) show that the soils have been exposed to contamination from petroleum products. High counts in some of the samples indicate normal microbial growth and activities. Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi contribute to good quality soil in terms of fertility. The quality of the borehole and surface water quality is fairly good hence, regular monitoring of water quality in the area is very necessary.

Keywords : Surface water , soil microbiology , heavy metals , borehole , Pollution , Obehie: This study aims at evaluating the physico-chemical , heavy and microbiological concentrations in soil and water samples around Veritas University , Obehie , Abia State , Nigeriato prevent the risk on the public health.Standard sampling and analytical methods were employed during the study. Results of the study revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water samples were low (mostly < 0.001) , and hydrocarbon were also below detection limit in all borehole samples. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water were also low , ranging from < 0.001 mg/l in some cases , with the highest single value being 0.165mg/l for iron. Total hydrocarbon content was also below detection levels in surface water showing unpolluted conditions.Heterotrophic bacteria densities were high in soil samples , ranging from 1.0 x 104 to 3.5 x 105 cfu/g soil. Densities of heterotrophic fungi were high in some locations , ranging from 1.0 x 103 to 1.5 x 105 cfu/g. Counts of petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were generally high. Percentage petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were greater than 1 % in all samples , except at one location. Microbial populations of soils particularly high in petroleum degraders (> 1 %) show that the soils have been exposed to contamination from petroleum products. High counts in some of the samples indicate normal microbial growth and activities. Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi contribute to good quality soil in terms of fertility. The quality of the borehole and surface water quality is fairly good hence , regular monitoring of water quality in the area is very necessary.
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Title : Evaluation of Erodibility Status of Soils in some Areas of Imo and Abia States of Nigeria
Authors : Andy Obinna Ibeje

In this study, the erodibility indices and some soil properties of some cassava farms in selected areas of Abia and Imo States were investigated. This study involves taking measurements of some soil parameters such as permeability, soil texture and particle size analysis from which the erodibility indices were compared. Results showed that soils of the areas are very sandy. The results showed that Isiukwuato with index of 72 has the highest erodibility index. The results also showed that Arondizuogu with index of 34 has the least erodibility index. The results revealed that soil erodibility (k) values varied from 34 to 72. Nkporo has the highest sand content, Inyishie has the least silt content. The result indicates that there were respectively strong inverse relationship between clay and silt contents and erodibility index. On the other hand, sand, organic matter and moisture contents as well as soil permeability has significantly high positive correlation with soil erodibility and it can be concluded that particle size distribution is a major finger print on the erodibility index of soil in the study area. It is recommended that safe cultural practices like crop rotation, matching and adoption of organic farming techniques be incorporated into farming communities of Abia and Imo States in order to stem the advances of erosion in the study area.

Keywords : Erodibility , indices , soil , sand
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Title : Salient alterations in hepatic and renal histomorphology of an Indian minor carp, Labeo bata (Hamilton, 1822) owing to ZnS nanoparticle induced hypoxia and environmental acidification
Authors : Nilanjana Chatterjee,Baibaswata Bhattacharjee

Due to enhanced surface photo-oxidation property of ZnS in its nanoparticle form, the dissolved oxygen content and pH value of water was found to reduce in a dose dependent manner from their normal values, when ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes are exposed to the water in various concentrations. This property was more prominent for ZnS nanoparticles with smaller sizes. Labeo bata, exposed to ZnS nanoparticles, responded to hypoxia with varied behavioural, physiological and cellular responses in order to maintain homeostasis and organ function in an oxygen-depleted environment. Due to the minimization of food uptake, the hepatic cells of L. bata were found to shrink and empty spaces generated in between them as they used storage deposit to maintain the metabolic activity of the fish. The kidneys of the exposed fishes showed shrinkage of glomerulus and dilution of tubular lumen due to reduction in glomerular filtration rate in oxygen depleted atmosphere. Vacuolization and hyaline degeneration of tubular epithelium were also seen in the renal histomorphology of L. bata when the exposure time exceeded 6 days.

Keywords : ZnS nanoparticles Photo-oxidation Hepatocytes Renal histomorphology Morphometry
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Title : Status and Mitigation of Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater in India
Authors : C. P. Kumar

High arsenic concentrations in groundwater in different states of India have become a major cause of concern in recent years. The groundwater in the past was considered to be safe for drinking purposes, but now it is recognized that many shallow tube wells contain arsenic at concentrations higher than the safe limit set for drinking purpose by WHO (1993). It is becoming an emerging issue in the water supply and health related sectors of India. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent status of arsenic in groundwater in India and present various methods suitable to be adopted in mitigating its adverse effects on human health.

Keywords : Arsenic , Contamination , Groundwater , Mitigation , Geogenic , Anthropogenic
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Title : Highly active TiO2 nanophotocatalysts for degradation of Methyl Orange under UV irradiation
Authors : Hiral Soni,Nirmal Kumar J. I.,Khushal Patel,Rita N. Kumar

This study describes the application of novel chemistry methods for the removal of dye by Nano structured titanium oxide (TiO2) photo catalysts. Such materials can be applied in the development of efficient photo catalytic systems for the treatment of water. Nano crystalline TiO2 was synthesized by Sol-Gel route using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a metal precursor. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).Synthesized TiO2 was related to anatase phase and crystalline structure was characterized by XRD. Cuboidal and uneven shape of TiO2 nanoparticles were observed by TEM images. FTIR reveals the functional groups present in the synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles. Thus synthesized TiO2 nanoparticle was used for photo catalytic degradation of methyl orange. The photo degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye, is examined both under different dye concentration (10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm) and amounts of TiO2 (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg / 10 ml). After 15W UV-365 nm irradiation for 3 h, ca. 99.9% of MO was degraded with addition of 20mg TiO2 to solutions containing 40ppm dye. The photo degradation mechanism of the quinonoidal methyl orange using nanoparticles is low cost, eco-friendly and cost effective process in the removal of toxic dyes.

Keywords : TiO2 nanoparticles , Photo catalytic degradation , Methyl Orange , XRD , TEM , FTIR.
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