In this study, the erodibility indices and some soil properties of some cassava farms in selected areas of Abia and Imo States were investigated. This study involves taking measurements of some soil parameters such as permeability, soil texture and particle size analysis from which the erodibility indices were compared. Results showed that soils of the areas are very sandy. The results showed that Isiukwuato with index of 72 has the highest erodibility index. The results also showed that Arondizuogu with index of 34 has the least erodibility index. The results revealed that soil erodibility (k) values varied from 34 to 72. Nkporo has the highest sand content, Inyishie has the least silt content. The result indicates that there were respectively strong inverse relationship between clay and silt contents and erodibility index. On the other hand, sand, organic matter and moisture contents as well as soil permeability has significantly high positive correlation with soil erodibility and it can be concluded that particle size distribution is a major finger print on the erodibility index of soil in the study area. It is recommended that safe cultural practices like crop rotation, matching and adoption of organic farming techniques be incorporated into farming communities of Abia and Imo States in order to stem the advances of erosion in the study area.
The study on the macrobenthos of Gopalpur coast, Odisha, East coast of India was undertaken during January 2015 to December 2015. The environmental parameters, sediment characteristics and macrobenthic organisms were collected from 3 stations. The physico-chemical parameters with relation to benthic community structure were studied. The salinity and sediment texture were the most important parameter at Gopalpur coast controlled the distribution and community structure of benthos. The annual rainfall at Gopalpur varied from 001.4-230.7mm. The temperature, salinity, DO, BOD showed spatio-temporal variation. The air and water temperature of Gopalpur coast varied from 26 to 34.20C and 27.5 to 30.20C respectively. The pH of Gopalpur coast varied from 7.2 to 8.3. The percentage composition of sand, silt and clay were in a range of 81.71 to 98.83%, 1.04 to 12.22%, 0.13 to 6.07% respectively. The salinity of Gopalpur coast varied from 5.3 to 31.7 PSU. The concentration of dissolved oxygen varied from 5.4 to 7.2 ml/l. The Bio-chemical oxygen demand ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 ml/l. The diversity of macro benthos of Gopalpur coast varied from 3 to 7 groups belonging to 5 phyla and the population density varied from 550 to 1400 ind./m2 at different stations. In total 8 groups were recorded namely nematodes, polychaetes, decapods, gastropods, bivalves, amphipods, isopods and echinoderms. 30 species were observed under 4 groups, out of which 8 species belongs to decapods, 10 species belongs to gastropods, 11 species belongs to bivalves and only 1 species belongs to echinoderms. Benthic faunal assemblages showed almost similar pattern of distribution at station-I and II (exclusive marine), dominated by nematodes. The station-III (brackish water) was quite different from the station-I and II with different environment and environmental parameters and dominated by polychaetes. In overall observation at 3 stations of Gopalpur coast nematodes dominated in abundance with 9.43-81.82% followed by polychaetes (4.55-51.79%), decapods (0-23.81%), gastropods (0-16.98%), bivalves (0-13.11%), amphipods (0-12.50%) isopods (0-11.32%), and asteroids (0-3.33%). The main objective of the research is to provide a data base and information regarding benthic community structure and to assess the pollution load as it is one of the famous tourist spot of East coast of India.
This study aims at evaluating the physico-chemical, heavy and microbiological concentrations in soil and water samples around Veritas University, Obehie, Abia State, Nigeriato prevent the risk on the public health.Standard sampling and analytical methods were employed during the study. Results of the study revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water samples were low (mostly < 0.001), and hydrocarbon were also below detection limit in all borehole samples. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water were also low, ranging from < 0.001 mg/l in some cases, with the highest single value being 0.165mg/l for iron. Total hydrocarbon content was also below detection levels in surface water showing unpolluted conditions.Heterotrophic bacteria densities were high in soil samples, ranging from 1.0 x 104 to 3.5 x 105 cfu/g soil. Densities of heterotrophic fungi were high in some locations, ranging from 1.0 x 103 to 1.5 x 105 cfu/g. Counts of petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were generally high. Percentage petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were greater than 1 % in all samples, except at one location. Microbial populations of soils particularly high in petroleum degraders (> 1 %) show that the soils have been exposed to contamination from petroleum products. High counts in some of the samples indicate normal microbial growth and activities. Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi contribute to good quality soil in terms of fertility. The quality of the borehole and surface water quality is fairly good hence, regular monitoring of water quality in the area is very necessary.
Moon Lake, MS is a 947 ha. oxbow lake of the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain also known as the Mississippi Delta. Land use within the Moon Lake watershed during the sampling period was predominantly conventionally tilled cotton and soybean farming. Water was sampled from five sites, bi-weekly from 1982 to 1985. Analysis of surface water quality reviled loading of nutrients from nonpoint source pollution associated with agricultural runoff. Significant negatives correlation was found between total phosphorus and chlorophyll a which seems counterintuitive until the effects of sediment on light availability are considered. As expected, Secchi depth was positively related to chlorophyll a and negatively correlated to total phosphorus and nitrogen. Significant positive correlations were found between total sediments and both total nitrogen and total phosphorus; however, a significant negative correlation was found between total sediments and chlorophyll a. The strong association of phosphorous with total sediments, the negative correlation of Secchi depth to phosphorus and nitrogen and the positive correlation to chlorophyll a indicate that Moon Lake primary productivity is driven by light availability rather than nutrients. The connection of productivity to sediment effects on light is important to ecosystem services of Delta oxbow lakes.
Due to enhanced surface photo-oxidation property of ZnS in its nanoparticle form, the dissolved oxygen content and pH value of water was found to reduce in a dose dependent manner from their normal values, when ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes are exposed to the water in various concentrations. This property was more prominent for ZnS nanoparticles with smaller sizes. Labeo bata, exposed to ZnS nanoparticles, responded to hypoxia with varied behavioural, physiological and cellular responses in order to maintain homeostasis and organ function in an oxygen-depleted environment. Due to the minimization of food uptake, the hepatic cells of L. bata were found to shrink and empty spaces generated in between them as they used storage deposit to maintain the metabolic activity of the fish. The kidneys of the exposed fishes showed shrinkage of glomerulus and dilution of tubular lumen due to reduction in glomerular filtration rate in oxygen depleted atmosphere. Vacuolization and hyaline degeneration of tubular epithelium were also seen in the renal histomorphology of L. bata when the exposure time exceeded 6 days.
High arsenic concentrations in groundwater in different states of India have become a major cause of concern in recent years. The groundwater in the past was considered to be safe for drinking purposes, but now it is recognized that many shallow tube wells contain arsenic at concentrations higher than the safe limit set for drinking purpose by WHO (1993). It is becoming an emerging issue in the water supply and health related sectors of India. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent status of arsenic in groundwater in India and present various methods suitable to be adopted in mitigating its adverse effects on human health.
This study describes the application of novel chemistry methods for the removal of dye by Nano structured titanium oxide (TiO2) photo catalysts. Such materials can be applied in the development of efficient photo catalytic systems for the treatment of water. Nano crystalline TiO2 was synthesized by Sol-Gel route using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a metal precursor. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).Synthesized TiO2 was related to anatase phase and crystalline structure was characterized by XRD. Cuboidal and uneven shape of TiO2 nanoparticles were observed by TEM images. FTIR reveals the functional groups present in the synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles. Thus synthesized TiO2 nanoparticle was used for photo catalytic degradation of methyl orange. The photo degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye, is examined both under different dye concentration (10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm) and amounts of TiO2 (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg / 10 ml). After 15W UV-365 nm irradiation for 3 h, ca. 99.9% of MO was degraded with addition of 20mg TiO2 to solutions containing 40ppm dye. The photo degradation mechanism of the quinonoidal methyl orange using nanoparticles is low cost, eco-friendly and cost effective process in the removal of toxic dyes.