Volume 1 – Issue 1

Title : Salient alterations in hepatic and renal histomorphology of an Indian minor carp, Labeo bata (Hamilton, 1822) owing to ZnS nanoparticle induced hypoxia and environmental acidification
Authors : Nilanjana Chatterjee,Baibaswata Bhattacharjee

Due to enhanced surface photo-oxidation property of ZnS in its nanoparticle form, the dissolved oxygen content and pH value of water was found to reduce in a dose dependent manner from their normal values, when ZnS nanoparticles of
different sizes are exposed to the water in various concentrations. This property was more prominent for ZnS nanoparticles with smaller sizes. Labeo bata, exposed to ZnS nanoparticles, responded to hypoxia with varied behavioural, physiological
and cellular responses in order to maintain homeostasis and organ function in an oxygen-depleted environment. Due to the minimization of food uptake, the hepatic cells of L. bata were found to shrink and empty spaces generated in between them
as they used storage deposit to maintain the metabolic activity of the fish. The kidneys of the exposed fishes showed shrinkage of glomerulus and dilution of tubular lumen due to reduction in glomerular filtration rate in oxygen depleted atmosphere. Vacuolization and hyaline degeneration of tubular epithelium were also seen in the renal histomorphology of L. bata when the exposure time exceeded 6 days.

Keywords : ZnS nanoparticles Photo-oxidation Hepatocytes Renal histomorphology Morphometry
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Title : Status and Mitigation of Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater in India
Authors : C. P. Kumar

High arsenic concentrations in groundwater in different states of India have become
a major cause of concern in recent years. The groundwater in the past was considered to be safe for drinking purposes, but now it is recognized that many shallow tube wells contain arsenic at concentrations higher than the safe limit set for drinking purpose by WHO (1993). It is becoming an emerging issue in the water supply and health related sectors of India. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent status of arsenic in groundwater in India and present various methods suitable to be adopted in mitigating its adverse effects on human health.

Keywords : Arsenic , Contamination , Groundwater , Mitigation , Geogenic , Anthropogenic
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Title : Highly active TiO2 nanophotocatalysts for degradation of Methyl Orange under UV irradiation
Authors : Hiral Soni,Nirmal Kumar J. I.,Khushal Patel,Rita N. Kumar

This study describes the application of novel chemistry methods for the removal of dye by Nano structured titanium oxide (TiO2) photo catalysts. Such materials can be applied in the development of efficient photo catalytic systems for the treatment of water. Nano crystalline TiO2 was synthesized by Sol-Gel route using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a metal precursor. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).Synthesized TiO2 was related to anatase phase and crystalline structure was characterized by XRD. Cuboidal and uneven shape of TiO2 nanoparticles were observed by TEM images. FTIR reveals the functional groups present in the synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles. Thus synthesized TiO2 nanoparticle was used for photo catalytic degradation of methyl orange. The photo degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye, is examined both under different dye concentration (10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm) and amounts of TiO2 (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg / 10 ml). After 15W UV-365 nm irradiation for 3 h, ca. 99.9% of MO was degraded with addition of 20mg TiO2 to solutions containing 40ppm dye. The photo degradation mechanism of the quinonoidal methyl orange using nanoparticles is low cost, eco-friendly and cost effective process in the removal of toxic dyes.

Keywords : TiO2 nanoparticles , Photo catalytic degradation , Methyl Orange , XRD , TEM , FTIR.
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Title : Suspended sediment impact on chlorophyll a, nitrogen and phosphorus relationships in Moon Lake, MS, USA
Authors : Scott Knight,Mary King,Charles Cooper

Moon Lake, MS is a 947 ha. oxbow lake of the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain also known as the Mississippi Delta. Land use within the Moon Lake watershed during the sampling period was predominantly conventionally tilled cotton and soybean farming. Water was sampled from five sites, bi-weekly from 1982 to 1985. Analysis of surface water quality
reviled loading of nutrients from nonpoint source pollution associated with agricultural runoff. Significant negatives correlation was found between total phosphorus and chlorophyll a which seems counterintuitive until the effects of
sediment on light availability are considered. As expected, Secchi depth was positively related to chlorophyll a and negatively correlated to total phosphorus and nitrogen. Significant positive correlations were found between total sediments
and both total nitrogen and total phosphorus however, a significant negative correlation was found between total sediments and chlorophyll a. The strong association of phosphorous with total sediments, the negative correlation of Secchi depth to
phosphorus and nitrogen and the positive correlation to chlorophyll a indicate that Moon Lake primary productivity is driven by light availability rather than nutrients. The connection of productivity to sediment effects on light is important to ecosystem services of Delta oxbow lakes.

Keywords :  sediments , nutrients , agricultural runoff , non-point pollution , primary productivity
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