This is an exploratory survey of T.C.P congestion control principles and techniques. By studying congestion control techniques used in T.C.P implementation software network. We can better comprehend the performance issue of packet switched the network and in particular, the public internet interaction between transmission control protocol (T.C.P) and Random Early Detection (R.E.D) gateway, can be captured using dynamical models. In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management technique Random Early Detection (R.E.D) have come into practice. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ) ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marketing) R.E.M, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay) performance parameter NS- 2 Network stimulator
Random Early Detection Gateway, Packet Loss Rates, Active Queuing, Congestion Control, Mobile Communication (GSM).
The world is fast becoming a global village and a necessary tool for this process is communication of which telecommunication is a key player. The quantum development in the telecommunications industry all over the world is very repaid as one innovation replaces another in a matter of short time. A major breakthrough is the wireless telephone system which comes in either fixed wireless telephone lines or the Global system of Mobile Communication (GSM). Communication without doubt is a major driver of any economy. Emerging trends on socioeconomic growth shows a high premium being placed on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by homes, organizations, and nations. It has been observed that calls across different networks are always difficult to connect, at times diverted and also attract more cost. This creates room for users to be confused as how much is deducted from their call credits or are compelled to having multiple GSM lines. As the network increases, more users make calls across different networks and there is need to record the call time, call network, and line identification and be able to put calls across the networks without much congestion.
In data networking and queuing theory, network congestion occurs when a link or node is carrying so much data that it quality of service deteriorates. Typical effects include queuing delay, packet loss or the blocking of new connections. A consequence of these latter two is that incremental increases in offered load lead either only to small increase in network throughput, or to an actual reduction in network throughput. Network protocols which use aggressive retransmissions to compensate for packet loss tend to keep systems in a state of network congestion even after the initial load has been reduced to a level which would not normally have induced network congestion. Thus, networks using these protocols can exhibit two stable states under the same level of load. The stable state with low throughput is known as congestive collapse. Modern networks use congestion control and network congestion avoidance techniques to try to avoid congestion collapse. These include: exponential back off in protocols such as 802.11’s CSMA/CA and the original Ethernet, window reduction in TCP, and fair queuing in devices such as routers. Another method to avoid the negative effects of network congestion is implementing priority schemes, so that some packets are transmitted with high priority than others. Priority schemes do not solve network congestion by themselves, but they help to alleviate the effects of congestion for some services. An example of this is 802.Ip. A third method to avoid network congestion is the explicit allocation of network resources to specific flows. One example of this is the use of Contention-Free Transmission Opportunities (CFTXOPS) in the ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides high-speed (up to 1 Gbit/s) Local Area networking over existing home wires power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables.
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The broader would of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) has exciting prospects in the Nigerian market, and will attain greater heights even quicker if all technological tools are properly harnessed. Nigerians are now awaiting downward review of tariff, which is believed, will place national interest as a major factor in considering the price regime especially putting into consideration the economic capacity of the average Nigerian. In a country where the Federal Government pays its Public Service workers a minimum wage of 18.000 Naira, it is assumed that the Government will prevail on the.National Telecommunications body to have rates that will be affordable for at least middle class workers. It is perceived that such a move will force operators to cut their rates, as market forces will level the price differentials involved in interconnectivity. Also, with a good congestion control on the Telecommunication Networks, users will start to enjoy their calls without much interruption or call failures.
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