The study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity on the basis of molecular characterization among 48 traditional aromatic rice varieties of India. It is very important for germplasm management, varietal identification, and DNA fingerprinting. Twenty four ISSR markers were studied across 48 traditional aromatic rice to characterize and discriminate among different varieties. A total of 151 polymorphic alleles were detected whereas 37 monomorphic alleles were detected. Polymorphic information content (PIC) was found to be the highest in primer (AM-8) and lowest in primer UBC-840. The morphological attributes like panicle number, grain length, no. of fertile grains/panicle and potential yield showed significant variation among the genotype. The morphological attributes are closely resemblance with molecular analysis. Result revealed that the primer AM-8 might be the best marker for identification and diversity estimation of aromatic rice varieties, followed by AM-4, AM-1, UBC-818 and UBC-850 primers. The UPGMA cluster dendrogram created in this study identified two clusters with a similarity coefficient of 53%. The genotype pair (‘Dangerbasumati’ and ‘Gangaballi’) showed the maximum similarity (0.93) among the 48 aromatic genotypes. The ISSR polymorphism and diversity could likely be attributed to pedigree. This study offered a rapid and reliable method for the estimation of variability between different traditional aromatic rice varieties which could be utilized by the breeders for further improvement of the aromatic rice varieties.
Anthracene, a tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon causes many problems associated with health and environmental impact. It results from incomplete combustion of fuels present in automobiles and found in high concentrations in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediments, surface soils & waste sites. Anthracene serves as a signature compound to detect PAH contamination, since its chemical structure is found in carcinogenic PAHs. Therefore, the present study aimed to isolate bacteria capable of utilizing anthracene as the sole source of carbon and energy. Nine organisms was isolated among the 40 soil samples collected from (industrial area), Bangalore, based on the screening test the organism was selected and identified by 16s RNA sequencing. The organism subjected for optimise at different concentrations of anthracene, pH, temperatures, effect of carbon source and nitrogen source. After optimistaion, the more degradation was showing concentration at 10mg, at pH 5 and temperature at 35oC but effect of nitrogen source, sodium nitrate was showing 60times more degradation and along with that effect of carbon source was increasing nearly 15 times. After UV mutation, the degradation was increased nearly 20 times. The cytochrome oxidase activity was determined which is involved in the degradation of anthracene and the degradation was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
esmostachya bipinnata is popularly known as holy grass. It shows antibacterial effect against gram negative and gram positive pathogens. In present investigation preliminary phytochemical screening and HPLC studies of Desmostachya bipinnata were analysed. Preliminary Phytochemical analysis showed that carbohydrates, phytosterols, saponins, Tanins , phenolic compounds, flavonoids, lignin were present. The HPLC result shows that a high peak of retention time minutes 2.5 significant 2.641 was found.
The muscle of two lagoon fishes known as Acanthurus monroviae and Lutjanus goreensis was analysed for proximate, minerals and amino acids compositions. The proximate values were high in crude protein (65.4-68.5 g/100 g) and energy (1433-1436 kJ/100 g) but low in most other proximate parameters with calculated fatty acid ranging between 3.61and 4.38 g/100 g. The proportion of total energy due to protein was highest with a range of 77.4-81.2 % and the utilizable energy due to protein was between 46.4 and 48.7 %. The two most concentrated minerals were K (392-419 mg/100 g) and P(219-269 mg/100 g) whereas each of the trace minerals was < 1.0 mg/100 g. For other mineral quality parameters, [K/(Ca+Mg)] was high at value range of 16.4-18.3. The two most abundant essential amino acids were Lys (8.88-9.57 g/100 g) and Leu (8.58-9.31 g/100 g) whereas the two most concentrated non-essential amino acids were Glu (13.4-14.7 g/100 g) and Asp (8.85-10.4 g/100 g). Total essential amino acid (with His) ranged from 47.4-48.5 g/100 g with corresponding percentage of 51.5-50.0. On other amino acid quality parameters: P-PER1, range was 3.09-3.41; EAAI was 1.39-1.44 and BV was 81.6-85.0. For amino acid scores, Ser was limiting in both samples in comparison with whole hen’s egg; under provisional EAA scoring pattern, Val was limiting in the two samples; under EAA of preschool child requirement, no amino acid was limiting since each score was > 1.0. In all the parameters determined (proximate, energy, minerals, amino acids, pI, scores), significant differences occurred between the two fish samples since rc > rt at r = 0.01 in each case. In most of the determinations made, the corresponding concentrations were more in A. monroviae than in L. goreensis.
Phytocompounds play a vital role in our lives since nowadays people rely more on herbal sources of drugs to be used for curing various ailments or to be used prophylactically in the form of neutraceutical.One such plant used to cure certain ailments is Colchicum autumnale L., whose medicinal benefit is attributed to the phytocompound colchicine present in it. The present study focused on studying the effect of two process parameters viz solvents of varying polarity and mode of extraction on the extraction of colchicine from Colchicum autumnale L. seeds. Solvents used included ethanol, methanol, chloroform and acetone whereas three methods of extraction were opted included maceration, reflux and soxhelation. Maceration extracted 0.939,1.072, 0.714 and 0.352 %w/w of colchicine in methanol, ethanol, chloroform and acetone respectively. For reflux, the results were- 2.6, 3.34, 1.91 and 0.483%w/w respectively for ethanol, methanol, and chloroform and acetone.In case of soxhelation the results were 2.63% w/w in ethanol, 3.49% w/w in methanol, 2.34% w/w in chloroform and 0.774% w/w in acetone. Thus, it was concluded from the study work that soxhelation proved to the best mode of extraction and methanol was identified as the most effective solvent for extracting colchicine. Furthurmore, since our study revolves around conventional modes of extraction, the work might be useful for areas where modern extraction techniques still are unavailable.
The high cost of fertilizer production and environmental pollution caused by the use of these fertilizers makes necessary to use other sources especially biofertilizers. The biomass of the bacterium Azotobacter can be used as a biofertilizer due to its ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. The purpose of this research was to study the survival of bacteria Azotobacter on different carrier such as vermicast and charcoal. The physical and chemical parameters of the carriers were analyzed to determine the effect of carrier in the survival of bacteria. Bacterial population inoculated in carriers were measured at times 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days by colony forming unit. The results of bacterial count after 15 days incubation showed that bacterial population in vermicast was increased and decreased in the charcoal. Considering these results, the use of vermicast as carrier could increase the survival of bacteria.
Production of synthetic seeds is effective for conservation and propagation of rare, endangered, critically endangered and threatened plants which are difficult to regenerate through conventional methods and due to low seed set and poor seed germination. There are some factors which discourage commercial cultivation of plants like excessive human exploitation, low germination percentage, less viability of the seeds and long gestation periods. Unsystematic collection of plants for their medicinal, ornamental, perfumery etc. and habitat destruction are potential causes of threats to natural population. The synthetic seed technology provides alternative methods for production of seeds by using various plant parts viz. shoot apices, nodal explants, somatic embryos etc. The quick development in somatic embryogenesis methods permits the use of somatic embryos in plant micropropagation as synthetic seeds. The present review discusses the need for conservation and alternative methods for conservation and exchange of germplasm through the development of synthetic seeds.
Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats used as model to design drug for the treatment of diabetes and its related cardiac disease. The research was designed to investigate the differential expression of specific gene in diabetic rats treated with novel protein isolated from extract of Eugenia jambolana seeds used as trial therapeutic compound for drug development. Diabetes increases oxidant stress and doubles the risk of dying after myocardial infarction, but the mechanisms underlying increased mortality are unknown. Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes developed profound heart rate slowing and doubled mortality compared with controls after myocardial infarction Streptozotocin induces diabetic rat treated with Eugenia jambolana extracts had increased cell survival, maintained normal heart rates, and were resistant to diabetes-attributable mortality after myocardial infarction. Heart tissues from STZ induced diabetic rats were subjected to RNA extraction for gene expression by using real time RT-PCR. Three diabetic cardiac-specific genes of interest such as IGF-1, VEGF and ANG-1 were chosen and the expression level of these genes has examined and the abnormal expression of genes in STZ induced diabetic group would be rescued by the protein of Eugenia jambolana based therapy. Gene expression of VEGF, ANG-1 and IGF-1 was upregulated after administrated protein of Eugenia jambolana (EJ) evidenced by RT-PCR. Administration of protein of Eugenia jambolana to diabetic rats significantly enhances survival, proliferation, and the angiogenic ability to improved function in a diabetic animals confirmed plant protein might be useful for the management of the diabetic cardiomyopathy. Keywords