Odds ratio is one measure used in epidemiological to study the association between the exposure and the corresponding disease. In a case control study is conducted to examine the relationship between smoking habit and Lung cancer. In this study we work on mismeasurement method. The Mismeasurement can be separated into two types, namely non-differential and differential mismeasurement. Misclassification of exposure variables in epidemiologic studies may lead to biased estimation of parameters and loss of power in statistical inferences. Simple estimates for predictive values when misclassification is nondifferential are presented. Using them, we estimated the corrected log odds ratio. In this we have to find the effects of non-differential misclassification when 5% of smokers are misclassified as nonsmokers and 8% of non smokers are misclassified as smokers and also we are study the effects of differential misclassification when 20% of smoking and non smoking cases, but not controls, are misclassified as nonsmokers and smokers.
Purpose Hyperbilirubinemia is the most common medical problem in newborn infants. Early discharge is recommended but hospital readmission is a cause of concern among clinicians ,and early discharge of neonates is recommended. This inturn carries a risk of delayed recognition of significant hyperbilirubinemia.A cross-sectional analytical study was done primarily to evaluate the predictive value of cord bilirubin level for identifying term and near term neonates for subsequent hyperbilirubinemia.
Materials & Methods Cord bilirubin levels at birth and subsequently serum bilirubin levels at 72 hours were assessed in 100 neonates. The cut off value was estimated beyond which there was significant hyperbilirubinemia.
Result The cut off value of cord bilirubin >2.02 mg/dl had sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and 70.8% respectively with positive predictive value of 0.39 and negative predictive value of 0.965 for subsequent hyperbilirubinemia.
Conclusion The cut-off value of cord bilirubin level estimated is 2.02 mg/dl can be used to predict significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a clinical syndrome resulting from massive necrosis of hepatocytes or from severe functional impairment of hepatocytes. Leading cause in developing countries is viral hepatitis, autoimmune diseases, where as in developed countries, drugs mainly acetaminophen is the most common cause of acute liver failure. N-Acetyl Cysteine, a glutathione, act as an anti-oxidant, replenishes mitochondrial and glutathione stores. Administration of NAC in children with non-acetaminophen induced acute liver failure, have shown to be associated with better outcome, shortened hospital stay and improved transplant free survival rates. We present a case report on use of N-acetyl cysteine in a 15 year old female with Hepatic Encephalopathy stage IV with Acute Liver failure (fulminant) secondary to hepatitis B virus.
Leukodystrophies are white matter disorders that are genetic in nature. In the young, they represent an important cause of progressive neurological disability. They are frequently diagnosed on MRI, but their identification remains a challenge. Their diagnosis is important for palliative and experimental treatment, as well as family screening.We report a case of 14 yr old male child who presented to us with fever and status epilepticus.MRI revealed leukodystrophy.Patient’s family opted for palliative and home based care once the natural history and prognosis was explained to them.At the time of dicharge patients seizures were controlled with phenytoin,phenobarbitone, sodium valproate and midazolam.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common hereditary condition with features of progressive weakness, intellectual impairment, pseudo-hypertrophy of calves with proliferation of connective tissue in muscle. Renal morbidities in the form of recurrent urinary tract infections are seen in these patiets due to prolonged immobility.however pelviureteral junction obstruction is very rarely seen