Studies were conducted to know the occurrence and distribution of total degraders and alkane degraders in industrial areas of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Mangalore and Mumbai by collecting (water and sediment) hundred samples from 16 locations. Total Heterotrophic Plate Count done in Soya bean Casein Digest agar showed more number of colonies in Kerala and Mumbai samples. Using the most probable number (MPN) procedure separately enumerated total degraders and alkane degraders and results showed more total and alkane degraders in Mumbai and Kerala samples. Biochemical potential was assessed by conducting various morphological and biochemical analysis. Salt tolerance studies showed 6% to 9% of salt tolerance. Out of the 16 isolates of Pseudomonas P1, P3, P7, P13 and P15 isolates were found to be more degrading than MTCC 2975. Pseudomonas spp. isolated from all stations was found to be sensitive to Gatifloxacin, Ofloxacin, Gentamicin, Amikacin, Co-Trimoxazole, Piperacillin, Ciproflaxacin and Chloramphenicol.
Infections with ESBL K. pneumoniae are increasing, particularly among patients in ICUs. This pathogen is usually multidrug-resistant and there are limited treatment options available. Active surveillance for ESBLproducing pathogens in high-risk populations should be performed using appropriate antimicrobial techniques. Disease progression has occurred while on treatment with antibiotics to which there is in vitro susceptibility. The carbapenems, that is, imipenem and Meropenam, are safe and effective antibiotics for the treatment of severe ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae infection in preterm infants
Cadmium, one of the heavy metal soil pollutants, affects nitrogen fixing efficacy of legumes adversely. Nodulation in soybean reduces with Cd induced stress. The heavy metal effect in terms of root nodule number gets substantiated in cumulative manner from vegetative to flowering to pod filling stage of the crop. Increased amino acid content of soybean root nodules was highest at flowering stage and dose dependent also. The increase in level of this metabolite also coincided with nodular senescence and age related changes. Leghaemoglobin content of root nodules lowers significantly both in soybean and chickpea with higher doses of Cd. Brown coloration of root nodules was an indicator of the Lb degradation noticed at flowering and pod filling growth stages in the presence of heavy metal. Such changes lower crop productivity due to ineffective nodulation and the lesser availability of nitrogen in Cd polluted soils.
Bauhinia species have a long history of traditional medicinal applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the ethanol extracts of B. vahlii roots, barks, and seeds was tested for antimicrobial activity against bacterial water borne pathogens using agar well diffusion assay the antibacterial activities were found to be species independent. Effectiveness of the extracts against different bacterial strains was measured in terms of zone of inhibition in millimeters. The values determined were compared with the positive control (Ampicilin) with highest antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms.
ender Coconut Water is a refreshing beverage that comes from tender coconuts. It is a powerhouse of nutrition containing a complex blend of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, carbohydrates, antioxidants, enzymes, health enhancing growth hormones, and other phytonutrients. History and folklore credit coconut water with remarkable healing powers, which medical science is now confirming. Published medical research and clinical observation have shown that coconut water, Makes an excellent oral rehydration sports beverage; Aids in exercise performance; Reduces swelling in hands and feet; Aids in kidney function and dissolves kidney stones; Protects against cancer; Helps balance blood sugar; Provides a source of ionic trace minerals; Improves digestion; Contains nutrients that feed friendly gut bacteria (Fife, 2007). Within India the demand for tender coconut water has been increasing over the years. Of the total production of coconut in India, nearly 20 per cent is harvested in tender form, which was only 5 per cent in 2000. At present about 3200 million tender coconuts are consumed annually in India. In a metro city like Mumbai, the annual tender coconut turnover handled by some 40-50 wholesalers is estimated to be around Rs. 750 million. The nutrient content of fresh and fermented tender coconut water was identified. Identification of microorganism was done on fresh tender coconut water and fermented tender coconut water. Standardization of the fermented tender coconut water was done. The formulated drink was tested for its antimicrobial property with E.coli, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis and it was seen that it had good effect. The pH of the fermented tender coconut water was found to be 3.98 and the alcohol percentage 2.91 %. Sensory evaluation was done for the fermented tender coconut water in combination with fruit juices in the ratio 1:1 and it was rated as good on a score of 5 by the panel members. Therefore fermented tender coconut water is a nutritious drink that has good acceptability and palatability. It is an easy to prepare fermented drink which has potential probiotics in it which is good for the gut.
Twenty six fungi belonging to Alternaria, Aspergillus, fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium sp. and few sterile mycelia were evaluated for the phosphate solubilising properties under solid and submerged culture conditions. Most of the Aspergillus sp. exhibited good solubilisation activity than other species listed. Plate screening test confirm the highest phosphate solubilisation efficiency by Sterile mycelium sp. 3 (89.4%) followed by Aspergillus sp. 1 (85.7%) and Fusarium sp. 1 and 3 (81.25%). Solubilization index calculated for these fungi was ranged between 1.80-1.89 . All fungi were evaluated for phosphate solubilisation efficiency under liquid culture condition supplemented with TCP. Aspergillus sp.4, Aspergillus sp.8 and Penicillium sp.1 solubilised 29.6%, 26.7% and 24.5% respectively. Decline in pH of the culture filtrate of 10 day old culture was observed in liquid culture of Aspergillus sp. 2 (4.59), Aspergillus sp 4 (4.79) and Aspergillus sp 8 (4.9). However, no correlation was observed between acid production and phosphate solubilisation. These fungal strains performed differentially under both culture conditions. Hence testing of phosphate solubilisation efficiency of these organisms under both the solid and liquid conditions is suggested in the present study.
The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in water supply of Surat city was monitored from several samples like four main water works, nine different pumping station and different customer usage water samples for a period of 1 year. The selective isolation was carried out by using membrane filter technique using MAeromonas selective media and selective isolation was done on Rippey Cabelli agar plate. Total 199 isolates were obtained. There are 22 different species of Aeromonas known till date, out of which 11 species are commonly found in aquatic environment. According to the research work, 9 different isolates of Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the water samples under study they are Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas caviae Aeromonas Salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, Aeromonas schubertii, Aeromonas veronii, Aeromonas euccrenophila, Aeromonas trota and Aeromonas popoffii. The growth range of Aeromonas shows seasonal variation more often during the warmer months.
Twenty eight fungal isolates of endophytic nature were isolated from different plant parts (leaf and root) of Operculina turpethum-an endangered medicinal plant by inoculating them on different medium (Malt Extract, Sabouraud Dextrose, Czapek Dox and Potato Dextrose Agar medium).Screening of these fungal isolates for different enzymes (extracellular) showed maximum number of amylase, protease, lipase and lasparaginase producers.57% of isolates showed good phosphate solubilisation potential. All the fungal endophytes were also evaluated for the inhibitory activity against three fusarial pathogen. Data recorded on percent growth inhibition exhibited good scoring index of leaf 4 and root 4 against Fusarium chlamydosporum and Fusarium tricinctum. Results indicated the occurrence of good number of endophytic fungi having lot of potential to be exploited for the industrial purpose.
Aeromonas spp. are common aquatic micro-organisms that occur in seawater, irrigation water, river water, brackish water, fresh water, ground water, spring water, industrial and domestic waste water. Aeromonas spp. is associated gastrointestinal diseases, mainly diarrhea, septicemia, wound infections and diseases of amphibians, reptiles, frog, fish etc. Every month water samples were collected from well (village pal), river (Tapti river), tap (Surat Municipal Cooperation), mineral (Aquafina), sea (brackish) and swimming pool (chlorinated) of Surat city during year 2009 to 2010 and analyzed microbiologically. Isolates like Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas salmonicida sub spp. smithia, Aeromonas salmonicida sub spp. masoucida, Aeromonas schubertii, Aeromonas veronii, Aeromonas media and Aeromonas caviae were obtained from the water samples and were further tested for their Biofilm formation and effect of disinfectant was checked on the produced Biofilm. As Aeromonas species are one of the Biofilm producing organism, the Biofilm production test was carried out by using polycarbonated plastic/PVC and Glass coupons deeped in three different containers like copper, steel and clay. Weight of the polycarbonated plastic coupons and glass coupons were noted and at the interval of 15 days and 30 days, increase in weight of the plates and coupons showed Biofilm formation. In water distribution system these organisms produce the Biofilm and so to remove it disinfectant treatment is used. Disinfectant treatment using (chlorine tablets) containing sodium dichloro isocyanurate, having 10 ppm of chlorine commercially available to disinfect drinking water. Serial plate count was done using M-Aeromonas selective media to get specific number of Aeromonas species. The hanging glass coupons were removed at time interval of 30min, 60min, 90min (with treatment of disinfection) and 0 min (without disinfection). The coupons were stain by using fluorescent dye Acridine orange to get number of viable and non viable cells forming Biofilm. We can also conclude that the Biofilm produced by them in a water distribution system i.e. pipe lines or domestic vessels can be controlled easily by disinfectants within an hour.
Aeromonas spp. are autochthonous in the aquatic ecosystem and some of them has been increasingly found, in patients with various diseases like enteritis, wound infection and even septicemia in amphibians, reptiles, frog, fish and in patients with impaired immunity. There are different virulence factors like aerolysin, hemolysins, cytotoxins, enterotoxins, proteolytic activity, lipolytic activity, gelatinase, slime production, DNases, and adhesions. These virulence factors are used as survival means, self defense mechanism and establishment of pathogenicity. They are also capable of forming biofilm and are found multiresistant, although free cells of Aeromonas may be relatively susceptible to disinfection; populations associated with biofilms may survive high chlorine dosing. Thus water distribution systems should be monitored to check the quality of water and for the purpose of public health.
The presence and deteriorating action of microorganisms on monuments and stone works of art have received considerable attention in the last few years. Knowledge of the microbial populations living on stone materials is the starting point for successful conservation treatment and control. This review describes some biodegradation processes originating from activity of microorganisms in black microbial crusts growing on historic monuments. The crusts are mainly composed of gypsum, carbonaceous particles and polycyclic aromatic carbons. They are slowly dissolving gypsum from black crusts represent a continuous source of sulphur for microbial growth. The sulphate bonding capacity of the sheath of cyanobacteria causes a particularly high demand for sulphate, thus making sulphur nutrition a relevant aspect in their physiology. Growing concern for the preservation of cultural heritage has led to a greater interest in the biological attack on these monuments. The importance of cyanobacteria as deteriogens is emphasized and the traditional and more modern molecular methods used to detect microorganisms are discussed.
The study was aimed to investigating the antimicrobial screening of ethanolic extracts of Cleome viscose against pathogenic bacteria and fungi responsible for common infections. The present investigation may be concluded that the plant Cleome viscosa is endowed with significant antimicrobial due to the presence of active constituents, there by justifying its use in the indigenous system of medicine.The seeds of Cleome viscosa are used in traditional systems of medicine for the treatment of many diseases in Asia. The present research work was conducted to investigate the invitro antimicrobial activity of seed extracts of plant Cleome viscosa. The ethanol extract of seeds of plants were screened against microbial species. The test materials have showed the significant antimicrobial activity. The zone of inhibition is found to be (12mm to 23 mm) bacteria and fungi. The present research work was identified phytochemical test presence of active biomolecules such as Alkaloid, tannins flavonoids, Fixed oil and fats, Gum and mucilage, sterols were present in water extracts of Cleome viscosa. To perform the solvent extraction and evaluate the Infra-Red and HPLC analysis.
Many consumers today are concerned about the synthetic chemicals used as preservatives in food, and there is a resulting trend towards less processed food. Bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus lactis strain isolated from the marine environment, showed broad range of antibacterial activity against some major food borne pathogens. Sediment samples were collected at Parangipettai coast and stored in the laboratory at 4ºC for used to isolate the Lactobacillus spp. The samples were diluted and plated on the de Rogosa and Sharpe agar and The isolated strain was grown in MRS broth (pH-6.0) seeded with 5% inoculum of overnight culture and maintained anaerobically at 30ºC for 48 h. After incubation, cells were removed from the growth medium by centrifugation. The cell-free supernatant was adjusted to pH 6.0 using 1N NaOH and it was used as crude bacteriocin (14). Maximum bacteriocin production was observed at 30°C, pH 6.0 and 1.5% sodium chloride solution. The enzymes – amylase, DNase, RNase and lipase had a positive effect on bacteriocin production. Proteinase K and pepsin strongly inhibited bacteriocin production. Among detergents, Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), Tween 80 and Tritone X-100 stimulated bacteriocin production. EDTA and urea strongly inhibited bacteriocin production. The molecular weight was 94 kDA. Therefore, the peculiar antimicrobial characteristics of L. lactis can positively have impact on their use as starter cultures for traditional fermented foods, with a view to improving the hygiene and safety of the food products so produced
Antimicrobial screening of ethyl ether and alcoholic extracts of leaves of three selected medicinal tree species growing in Sikar district of Rajasthan was carried out. Ailanthus excelsa, Pongamia pinnata and Salvadora oleoides showed positive reactions against bacterial pathogens i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and a fungal pathogen Candida albicans
Aim and Objective: To assess the pattern of bacterial isolates in our NICU along with their antibiotic sensitivity pattern so that guidelines could be prepared for a rational antibiotic therapy. Study Design: A retrospective hospital based study. Place and Duration Of Study: NICU of Sangameshwar hospital, Gulbarga from Nov 2012 to Aug 2013. Material and Methods: All neonates admitted in our NICU with positive culture were included in this study. Culture reports were analyzed for bacterial isolates along with their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Results: 139 organisms were isolated from the 442 cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was the main pathogen during this period. Resistance to methicillin is 18%. Among gram negative organisms, klebsiella is most common. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism. Meropenam is the most sensitive drug for gram negative organisms, vancomycin followed by linezolid for gram positive organisms. These drugs should be used as second line drugs otherwise resistance increases over time
This study aimed to isolate the bioluminescent bacterial strains from seawater and sediments in near the Roach Park, coastal area of Tuticorin. Further to identify the luminescent bacteria strains and to screen for production of bioactive metabolites and their bioactivity against human bacterial pathogens. Bioluminescent bacteria are wide spread in natural environment. Water and sediment samples were collected from nearby mangrove ecosystem of the Roach Park off Tuticorin coast, Bay of Bengal. The luminous bacteria density was found to be 3 X 104 CFU/ml – 5 X 104 CFU/g in seawater and sediment respectively. Totally 10 luminescent bacterial strains were identified up to genus levels were selected and screened for the production of antibacterial substance, in the preliminary screening the strains SWLB3, STLB5 and STLB6 strains had shown broad spectrum activity against the human pathogens. Among these strain STBL5 exhibited predominant activity against human bacterial pathogens. The bioactive bacterial metabolites which showed higher activity against human pathogens indicate that luminescent bacteria could be used as a good source for the isolation of bioactive compounds.