Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become one of the well-known etiologic agents for a wide variety of infections in both hospital and community settings. It is also a growing threat to the immunocompromised as well as to the general public. A total of 98 S. aureus isolates from 450 different human clinical specimens comprising pus, nasal swab, blood, urine and sputum were obtained at two tertiary care hospitals of Pokhara; Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH) and Western Regional Hospital (WRH). Those isolates were then screened for meticillin resistance by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique following aseptic procedures in Microbiology laboratory, WRH. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Meticillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and Meticillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were studied by using antibiotic discs like cefoxitin (30mcg), oxacillin (1mcg), vancomycin (30mcg) and gentamicin (10mcg). 72.4% of the isolates were found to be MRSA while 27.6% were MSSA. Among them, very high resistance levels (87.8%) and (74.5%) were detected against oxacillin and cefoxitin while gentamicin and vancomycin recorded the least resistance levels i.e (25.5%) and (5.1%) respectively. High percentage of meticillin resistant isolates and occurence of vancomycin resistance among them which may refer to irrational use of antimicrobial agent, thus, necessitate implementation of good strategies for control of infection and use of antibiotics. Outcome of this study emphasizes the need for constant monitoring on the prevalence of MRSA and to help clinicians/doctors in the effective management and treatment of infections caused by S.aureus.
Cytomegalovirus has been described as an important etiological agent of intrauterine infection in pregnant women that causes congenital malformations like intrauterine growth restriction, cerebral palsy. The study on seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus IgG antibodies was conducted on one hundred and twenty pregnant women attending, ante-natal clinics in two hospitals in Birnin-Kebbi. The serum samples were examined for the presence of IgG antibodies against cytomegalovirus by Elisa technique. From the 120 blood samples collected, 112 (93.3%) were seropositive for cytomegalovirus IgG antibodies and 8 (6.7%) did not have the CMV IgG antibodies. There was no significant relation of CMV IgG seropositivity with increasing age, occupation, residence, stage of pregnancy and parity, however there was association between level of education and CMV IgG seropositivity. Cytomegalovirus IgG antibodies seroprevalence rate was higher in women from urban rural as compared to those of urban rural areas. All women (100%) who had secondary and tertiary education had CMV IgG antibodies and it was high (100%) in civil servants and urban women (96.2%). CMV IgG antibodies was absent in women who were in 1st trimester (3, 11.5%) and 2nd trimester (5, 8.6%). Women (100%) in 3 rdtrimester and who had one and three children had 100% CMV IgG antibodies. There should be voluntary screening of all pregnant women for CMV infection and its antibodies as part of the antenatal care. The identified susceptible/seronegative women should be educated on appropriate preventive measures.
The present study to determine the quality of well water sources in different villages of chntapalli mandal, Visakhapatnam, India. The results were compared with BSI and WHO standards for drinking water. The physic-chemical parameters includ pH, Turbidity, Electric conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Phosphate, and Dissolved Oxygen (DO)were tested. It was found prescribed limits while that some parameters were higher than the prescribed limits while other parameters were lower than the limits. In the microbiological examination, all samples were found to be contaminated with coliforms. Although fecal coliforms were found to be contaminated with coliforms. These contaminated waters pose threats to the health of the tribal people. The results showed that, some of the parameters below and some of them above the limits. The water samples needed treatment before it is consumed.
Endophytic microbes that inhabit host plants without causing any disease and are reported to produce secondary metabolites active against many diseases. In present study a pure compound was isolated from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. which was isolated from the plant Crocus sativus. The compound was predicted as crocin structure was elucidated by NMR and Mass. Anticancer activity of the compound was conducted against total four human cancer cell lines, Breast MCF-7, Cervix Hela, Leukemia TH-1 and Prostate PC-3.The compound affected the leukemia TH-1 cancer cells to the tune of about 43% and PC-3 cancer cells about 23%.The result of this study suggested endophytes of Crocus sativus and their metabolites could be a source of bioactive natural product against human cancer cell lines.
Now-a-days, economic and medicinal importance of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) is an established fact, besides further research methodology is practiced to reach the extreme and extensive value of its diverse pharmacological and other uses. It has been appreciably used in traditional medicine as a household remedy for various diseases. Its anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-oxidant properties if exploited efficiently may benefit the mankind in colorful ways. It has a low toxic effect on body hence large doses can be given without any fear of toxicity that reflects its broad therapeutic index. This plant has benefited us of its various medicinal values besides other utilities.
The purpose of present work is to study antimicrobial activity and medicinally active principles present in different solvent extracts obtained from leaves and fruits of Passiflorasubpeltata.The active principles were isolated by Soxhlet extractor and identified by preliminary phytochemical test. The Soxhlet extraction was performed using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. The results of analyses of solvent extract confirmed the active substances were sterols, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins. The antibacterialia tests of isolated substances were performed with pathogenic bacteria like –Escherichia coli ,Klebsiellapneumoniae, Enterobacteraerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, andEnterobacterfaecalis. The observation of microbial test of methanol and ethyl acetate extract of both leaves and fruits supports to antibacterial activity to the greater extent than petroleum ether, and chloroform extract. In this study, both Gram positive and negative bacteria tested were found to be sensitive to methanol and ethyl acetate extract of both leaves and fruits. P.subpeltatarevealed the highest antibacterial activity at a minimum inhibitory concentration againstE.aerogenes, S.aureus, andE.faecalis. These findings suggest the need for further research of this herb and its products. The results provide justification for the use of theP.subpeltata in folk medicine to treat various infectious diseases.