Cadmium, one of the heavy metal soil pollutants, affects nitrogen fixing efficacy of legumes adversely. Nodulation in soybean reduces with Cd induced stress. The heavy metal effect in terms of root nodule number gets substantiated in cumulative manner from vegetative to flowering to pod filling stage of the crop. Increased amino acid content of soybean root nodules was highest at flowering stage and dose dependent also. The increase in level of this metabolite also coincided with nodular senescence and age related changes. Leghaemoglobin content of root nodules lowers significantly both in soybean and chickpea with higher doses of Cd. Brown coloration of root nodules was an indicator of the Lb degradation noticed at flowering and pod filling growth stages in the presence of heavy metal. Such changes lower crop productivity due to ineffective nodulation and the lesser availability of nitrogen in Cd polluted soils.
Purpose A wound is commonly infected because there is loss of integrity of skin. Infected wound delays wound healing due to the lack of defense mechanism, blood supply and lack of oxygen. The present study was focused on the incidence of various pathogens in different types of wound infections and the variations in their antibiotic susceptibility have been analyzed.
Methods A total of 50 samples were collected randomly from wound infected areas like cellulitis, diabetic foot lesions, post-operative wound infections, early stages of necrotizing fasciitis, burn wounds etc. The samples were analyzed by various microbiological techniques like microscopy, culture methods and Biochemical methods. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolates was tested by using Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method.
Results Out of 50 cases, 35 were males and 15 were a female which shows the male preponderance. Wound infection showed a high incidence in the age group of 41-60 which is followed by 21-40. The most predominant bacteria in positive samples are Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 44% which is followed by Staphylococcus aureus 26%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 16%, Proteus mirabilis 8% and Escherichia coli 6%. Nearly 21 major strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly sensitive to Amikacin (95.4%) and 15 strains were sensitive to Amoxycillin/clavulanate (68.1%). Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from two cases of necrotizing fasciitis and the fungi Aspergillus niger was isolated from one burn wound infection.
Conclusion The most common organisms isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Staphylococcus aureus which showed sensitivity to Amikacin. The percentage of resistance was high among Penicillin, Cephalexin, Ampicillin, Tetracycline and Erythromycin.