Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become one of the well-known etiologic agents for a wide variety of infections in both hospital and community settings. It is also a growing threat to the immunocompromised as well as to the general public. A total of 98 S. aureus isolates from 450 different human clinical specimens comprising pus, nasal swab, blood, urine and sputum were obtained at two tertiary care hospitals of Pokhara; Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH) and Western Regional Hospital (WRH). Those isolates were then screened for meticillin resistance by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique following aseptic procedures in Microbiology laboratory, WRH. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Meticillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and Meticillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were studied by using antibiotic discs like cefoxitin (30mcg), oxacillin (1mcg), vancomycin (30mcg) and gentamicin (10mcg). 72.4% of the isolates were found to be MRSA while 27.6% were MSSA. Among them, very high resistance levels (87.8%) and (74.5%) were detected against oxacillin and cefoxitin while gentamicin and vancomycin recorded the least resistance levels i.e (25.5%) and (5.1%) respectively. High percentage of meticillin resistant isolates and occurence of vancomycin resistance among them which may refer to irrational use of antimicrobial agent, thus, necessitate implementation of good strategies for control of infection and use of antibiotics. Outcome of this study emphasizes the need for constant monitoring on the prevalence of MRSA and to help clinicians/doctors in the effective management and treatment of infections caused by S.aureus.
Groundwater is normally considered a “safe-source” of drinking water as it is usually having a low microbial load that could be consumed without treatment. However, groundwater sources are often vulnerable to contamination, thus lowering their quality. The aim of the study was to examine the water quality in the rural environs of HRBR Layout, Bangalore, India for the presence of enteric bacteria. Twenty random sampling points were selected. The water sample collected from wells of residential homes in the rural environs of HRBR Layout and subjected to physiochemical analysis and bacterial examination. All samples examined showed higher dissolved oxygen values than the limit set by the World Health Organisation [WHO]. The total dissolved solids for the samples ranged from 199.33 ± 2.07 – 819.33 ± 2.01 mg/L while the total suspended solids ranged from 020.67 ± 3.06 – 393.33 ± 5.37 mg/L. According to WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards [BIS] Standards, none of the water samples are safe for drinking based on the MPN index, while according to Central Pollution Control Board [CPCB], the some of the water sample can be utilized (>50 MPN/ 100 ml). The following bacteria were isolated from the water samples: Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Yersinia spp. It is recommended that the water for domestic use in the study area be subjected to on-site treatment interventions to protect the households and the public from using such water.