Cytomegalovirus has been described as an important etiological agent of intrauterine infection in pregnant women that causes congenital malformations like intrauterine growth restriction, cerebral palsy. The study on seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus IgG antibodies was conducted on one hundred and twenty pregnant women attending, ante-natal clinics in two hospitals in Birnin-Kebbi. The serum samples were examined for the presence of IgG antibodies against cytomegalovirus by Elisa technique. From the 120 blood samples collected, 112 (93.3%) were seropositive for cytomegalovirus IgG antibodies and 8 (6.7%) did not have the CMV IgG antibodies. There was no significant relation of CMV IgG seropositivity with increasing age, occupation, residence, stage of pregnancy and parity, however there was association between level of education and CMV IgG seropositivity. Cytomegalovirus IgG antibodies seroprevalence rate was higher in women from urban rural as compared to those of urban rural areas. All women (100%) who had secondary and tertiary education had CMV IgG antibodies and it was high (100%) in civil servants and urban women (96.2%). CMV IgG antibodies was absent in women who were in 1st trimester (3, 11.5%) and 2nd trimester (5, 8.6%). Women (100%) in 3 rdtrimester and who had one and three children had 100% CMV IgG antibodies. There should be voluntary screening of all pregnant women for CMV infection and its antibodies as part of the antenatal care. The identified susceptible/seronegative women should be educated on appropriate preventive measures.
Groundwater is normally considered a “safe-source” of drinking water as it is usually having a low microbial load that could be consumed without treatment. However, groundwater sources are often vulnerable to contamination, thus lowering their quality. The aim of the study was to examine the water quality in the rural environs of HRBR Layout, Bangalore, India for the presence of enteric bacteria. Twenty random sampling points were selected. The water sample collected from wells of residential homes in the rural environs of HRBR Layout and subjected to physiochemical analysis and bacterial examination. All samples examined showed higher dissolved oxygen values than the limit set by the World Health Organisation [WHO]. The total dissolved solids for the samples ranged from 199.33 ± 2.07 – 819.33 ± 2.01 mg/L while the total suspended solids ranged from 020.67 ± 3.06 – 393.33 ± 5.37 mg/L. According to WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards [BIS] Standards, none of the water samples are safe for drinking based on the MPN index, while according to Central Pollution Control Board [CPCB], the some of the water sample can be utilized (>50 MPN/ 100 ml). The following bacteria were isolated from the water samples: Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Yersinia spp. It is recommended that the water for domestic use in the study area be subjected to on-site treatment interventions to protect the households and the public from using such water.