Keywords

M. oleifera, Drumstick, Phytochemical, Pharmacology, Phytophysiological

Introduction

Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae. English common names include: moringa Drumstick (The appearance of the long, slender, triangular seed-pods), horseradish tree (The taste of the roots, which resembles horseradish), ben oil tree, or benzoil tree (The oil which is derived from the seeds) [1]. It is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree, native to the southern foothills of the Himalayas in northwestern India, and widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas where its young seed pods and leaves are used as vegetables. It can also be used for water purification and hand washing, and is sometimes used in herbal medicine [2].

Description

M. oleifera is a fast-growing, deciduous tree [3]. It can reach a height of 10–12 m (32–40 ft) [4]. and the trunk can reach a diameter of 45 cm (1.5 ft) [5]. The bark has a whitish-grey colour and is surrounded by thick cork. Young shoots have purplish or greenish-white, hairy bark.The tree has an open crown of drooping, fragile branches and the leaves build upa feathery foliage of tripinnate leaves.The flowers are fragrant and bisexual, surrounded by five unequal, thinly veined, yellowish-white petals. The flowers are about 1.0 1.5 cm (1/2″) long and 2.0 cm (3/4″) broad. They grow on slender, hairy stalks in spreading or drooping later flower clusters which have a length of 10–25 cm [6]. Flowering begins within the first six months after planting. In seasonally cool regions, flowering only occurs once a year between April and June. In more constant seasonal temperatures and with constant rainfall, flowering can happen twice or even all year-round [6]. The fruit is a hanging, three-sided brown capsule of 20–45 cm size which holds dark brown, globular seeds with a diameter around 1 cm. The seeds have three whitish papery wings and are dispersed by wind and water [7]. In cultivation, it is often cut back annually to 1–2 m (3–6 ft) and allowed to regrow so the pods and leaves remain within arm’s reach.

Breeding

In India, from where moringa most likely originated, the diversity of wild types is large [8] . This gives a good basis for breeding programs. In countries where moringa has been introduced, the diversity is usually much smaller among the cultivar types. Locally well-adapted wild types, though can be found in most regions.Because moringa is cultivated and used in different ways, there are different breeding aims. The breeding aims for an annual or a perennial plant are obviously different. The yield stability of fruits is an important breeding aim for the commercial cultivation in India, where moringa is cultivated as an annual. On less favorable locations, perennial cultivation has big advantages. Erosion is much smaller with perennial cultivation [8]. In Pakistan, varieties have been tested for their nutritional composition of the leaves on different locations [9]. The different breeding aims result in a different selection. India selects for a higher number of pods and dwarf or semidwarf varieties. Breeders in Tanzania, though, are selecting for higher oil content [10]. the leaves are the most nutritious part of the plant, being a significant source of B vitamins, vitamin C, provitamin A as beta-carotene, vitamin K, manganese, and protein, among other essential nutrients.[3, 9,10] When compared with common foods particularly high in certain nutrients per 100 g fresh weight, cooked moringa leaves are considerable sources of these same nutrients. Some of the calcium in moringa leaves is bound as crystals of calcium oxalate [11]. The leaves are cooked and used like spinach and are commonly dried and crushed into a powder used in soups and sauces. The immature seed pods, called “drumsticks”, are commonly consumed in South Asia. They are prepared by parboiling, and cooked in a curry until soft [12]. The seed pods/fruits, even when cooked by boiling, remain particularly high in vitamin C [13]. (Which may be degraded variably by cooking) and are also a good source of dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium, and manganese [13].

The seeds, sometimes removed from more mature pods and eaten like peas or roasted like nuts, contain high levels of vitamin C and moderate amounts of B vitamins and dietary minerals. Mature seeds yield 38–40% edible oil called ben oil from its high concentration of behenic acid. The refined oil is clear and odorless, and resistsrancidity. The seed cake remaining after oil extraction may be used as a fertilizer or as a flocculent to purify water [14]. Moringa seed oil also has potential for use as a biofuel [15]. The roots are shredded and used as a condiment with sharp flavor qualities deriving from significant content of polyphenols [16].

Figure 1: Seeds, Green Pods, Dry Pods, Flower, and branches of M. oleifera

Malnutrition relief

Moringa trees have been used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers [3.17] .Since moringa thrives in arid and semiarid environments it may provide a versatile, nutritious food source throughout the year. Dunt-dalun chin-yei, Burmese drumstick sour soup Moringa has numerous applications in cooking throughout its regional distribution. It may be preserved by canning but is often made into a variety of curry dishes by mixing with coconut, poppy seeds, and mustard or boiled until the drumsticks are semisoft and consumed directly without any extra processing or cooking. It is used in curries, sambars, kormas, and dals, although it is also used to add flavor to cutlets and other recipes.

The fruit meat of drumsticks, including young seeds, is used for soup. Young leaves can either be fried with shrimp or added as a topping in fish soup. Several traditional dishes use leaves (sluc) of the moringa tree known as daum m’rum [19]. Such as korko (a mixed vegetable soup). As it is a favorite vegetable, Cambodians traditionally grow moringa trees close to their residences. Tender drumstick leaves, finely chopped, are used as garnish for vegetable dishes and salads. The long moringa seed pods are cut into shorter lengths and stewed in curries and soups. Because they are fibrous, seed pods are often chewed to extract the juices and nutrients, with the remaining fibrous material discarded. The flowers are mixed with gram flour and other spices, then deep fried into fritters to be served as snacks or added to curries.The green pods, leaves, and flowers are used in a variety of Thai dishes, such as curries, stir-fries, soups, omelets, and salads. A traditional dish is sour Thai curry made with drumstick pods and fish.Moringa leaves are commonly added to broth as a simple soup. The leaves may also be used as a typical ingredient in tinola, a traditional chicken dish consisting of chicken in a broth, moringa leaves, and either green papaya or another vegetable or in the all vegetable dish known as utan. The leaves can also be processed with olive oil and salt for a pesto-like pasta sauce. Moringa juice may be mixed with lemonsito juice to make ice candies or cold drinks. In Indonesia, the leaves are commonly eaten in a clear vegetable soup, often with corn, spinach and coconut milk.

Water Purification

Moringa seed cake, obtained as a byproduct of pressing seeds to obtain oil, is used to filter water using flocculation to produce potable water for animal or human consumption [20, 21]. Moringa seeds contain dimericcationic proteins [22]. Which absorb and neutralize colloidal charges in turbid water, causing the colloidal particles to clump together, making the suspended particles easier to remove as sludge by either settling or filtration. Moringa seed cake removes most impurities from water. This use is of particular interest for being nontoxic and sustainable compared to other materials in moringa-growing regions where drinking water is affected by pollutants [21].

Ayurveda Treatment in 300 diseases has been reported from the drumstick

There is a legume tree that year in the south. It is inserted into the sambar. Once a year, while in the north it is the same pod. Once the flowers also make winter vegetable is eaten. Then the soft vegetable bean is created. Pruning of trees and will be after this abdominal diseases and kapha diseases , arthritis and colic in a pod, leaf eye, sprains, Siatika, is useful in Ayurveda treatment in 300 diseases have been reported from the drumstick . The pods, green leaves and dry leaves, carbohydrates, protein, calcium, potassium, iron, magnesium, vitamin A, C and B complex is found in plenty. – The flowers in the arthritis etc. Mix honey in the bark of drumstick vata, kapha disease and become calm. The leaf decoction of arthritis, Siatika, stroke, air disorder early benefits. The decoction of its root in Siatika rapid velocity looks miraculous effects, – Sprains etc. drumstick leaf when making pulp and mustard oil and cook on low strain shortly benefit from putting in place of sounds.

Air drumstick eighty kinds of pain and 72 types of disorders have been reported suppressor. The vegetable from chronic arthritis, joint pain, accumulation of air, is useful in rheumatic diseases.Fresh drumstick leaves juice in the ear pain is putting Kidney and urinary stones slip drumstick vegetable leaves.Extract of the root bark, add rock salt and drink Hing is useful in the formation of gallstones.The juice of the leaves removes children Kiden stomach prevents diarrhea and vomiting.The juice is useful in hypertension early evening drink.Intake of the juice of its leaves gradually decreases obesity. To rinse teeth decoction of the bark worms are destroyed and in pain relief. – It eliminates constipation by eating greens soft leaves.Kade its root with the rock salt and Hing Consumption benefits in epileptic seizures. Grind the leaves from the wound and heal inflammation. It also has light eyes – Drumstick soup as you can drink the blood of the body is clean. Only then will the problems of Pimpalgaon will clean the blood from the inside

Phytochemical, biochemical, and pharmacological analysis of M. oliefera

Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Various flavanoids and Phenolics were identified by paper chromatography based on their RF values and significant colors. From the above study we concludethat Moringa and Ocimum are rich in natural antioxidants hence are potent source in pharmaceutical industry [23].Oxidative stress is a physiological state associated with almost all biotic andabiotic stresses in plants. This phenomenon occurs due toimbalances which resultfrom the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Plants, however, havedeveloped sophisticated mechanisms to mitigate the effect of ROS. Furthermore, the obtained data supports M. oleifera as a sourceof versatile andpharmacologically relevant metabolites that may be exploited forameliorating the oxidative damages imposed by several metabolic disorders inhumans [24]. This study was designed to determine the antioxidant properties and inhibitoryeffects of extract from Moringa oleifera leaves on angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) and arginase activities in vitro. The phenolic contents, inhibition of ACE, arginase,and Fe(2+)-induced MDA production, and radical (OH, NO) scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities could be some of the possible mechanisms by which M.oleifera leaves could be used in the treatment and/or management of erectiledysfunction[25].

Moringa oleifera is an interesting plant for its use in bioactive compounds. Inthis manuscript, we review studies concerning the cultivation and production of moringa along with genetic diversity among different accessions and populations. Different methods of propagation, establishment and cultivation are discussed. However, there are still toofew studies on humans to recommend Moringa leaves as medication in the preventionor treatment of diseases. Therefore, further studies on humans are recommended [26].The influence of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf extract as a dietary supplement onthe growth performance and antioxidant parameters was evaluated on broiler meatand the compounds responsible for the corresponding antioxidant activity wereidentified. 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/v of MO leaf aqueous extracts (MOLE) wereprepared, and nutritional feed supplemented with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/w of MO leaf meal (MOLM) extracts were also prepared and analysed for their in vitroantioxidant potential. Furthermore, the treated broiler groups (control (T1) and treatment (T2, T3, and T4)) were evaluated for performance, meat quality, andantioxidant status [27].4(α-l-Rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (glucomoringin isothiocyanate; GMG-ITC)is released from the precursor 4(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate(glucomoringin; GMG) by myrosinase (β-thioglucoside glucohydrolase; E.C.3.2.1.147) catalyzed hydrolysis. Spinal cord trauma was induced in mice by the applicationof vascular clips (force of 24g) for 1 min., via four-level T5-T8 after laminectomy. Therefore, the bioactive phytochemical GMG-ITC freshly produced before use by myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of pure GMG, could prove to be useful in the treatment of spinal cord trauma.[28]Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a “green” technology which can be usedfor the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. Thebehaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and totalphenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at varioustemperatures using PHWE. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radicalscavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperatureuntil 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased.[29]

Metabolite extraction methods have been shown to be a critical consideration for pharmacometabolomics studies and, as such, optimization and development of new extraction methods are crucial. In the current study, an organic solvent-freemethod, namely, pressurised *hot water extraction (PHWE), was used to extract pharmacologically important metabolites from dried Moringa oleifera leaves. The use of MS in combination with PCA was furthermore shown to be an excellentapproach to evaluate the quality and content of pharmacologically importantextracts [30].Moringa oleifera is a medicinal plant and an excellent dietary source ofmicronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and health-promoting phytochemicals (phenolic compounds, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates). Glucosinolates andisothiocyanates are known to possess anti carcinogenic and antioxidant effectsand have attracted great interest from both toxicological and pharmacological points of view, as they are able to induce phase 2 detoxification enzymes and to inhibit phase 1 activation enzymes. Second, LC-MS and LC-MS/MSqualitative and quantitative methods were used for the identification and/ordetermination of phenolics and glucosinolates in M. oleifera [31].Fresh leaves of M. oleifera plants were analysed for nutritionally importantphytoconstituents and feasible commercially used dehydration method wereevaluated to preserve these in dehydrated leaves. The product was evaluated using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and was accepted with a high overall qualityscore. The present investigation explores the nutritional potential of M.oleifera leaves and suitable methods of drying that could be useful for processedfood formulation [32].

Moringa oleifera, an important multipurpose crop, is rich in variousphytochemicals: flavonoids, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and carotenes. Biochemical pathway analysis revealed that 28 identifiedmetabolites were interconnected with 36 different pathways as well as related to different fatty acids and secondary metabolites synthesis biochemical pathways.It is well known that different tissues of M. oleifera have nutritional,medicinal, and therapeutic values; therefore, our main objective is to provide a publicly available M. oliefera tissue specific metabolite database [33].Present investigation shows that hydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera(MOHE) and its isolated saponin (SM) attenuates DMBA induced renal carcinogenesisin mice. Isolation of SM was achieved by TLC and HPLC and characterization wasdone using IR and (1) HNMR. Animals were pre-treated with MOHE (200 and 400 mg/kgbody weight; p.o), BHA as a standard (0.5 and 1 %) and SM (50 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days prior to the administration of single dose of DMBA (15 mg/kg bodyweight) [34].Moringa is a mycorrhizal crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics andappreciated for its nutritive and health-promoting value. As well as improvingplant mineral nutrition, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect plantsynthesis of compounds bioactive against chronic diseases in humans. Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae were used in a full factorial experiment to investigate the impact of AMF on the accumulation of glucosinolates, flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and mineral elements in moringa leaves [35].

The antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) grown in Mozambique was investigated. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against two Gram-positive strains (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcusaureus), two Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and five fungal strains of agro-food interest (Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium digitatum, and Aspergillus nigerspp.). B. cereus and P. aeruginosa, as well as the fungal strains were sensitive to the essential oil [36]. The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) contentand antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goatsupplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplementedmeat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) andlipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake [37].The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an extract from Moringa oleifera (MO) on the development of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonaryhypertension (PH) in Wistar rats. Chronic treatments with the MO extract reversed the MCT-induced changes. Additionally, the MCT group had a significant elevation in superoxide dismutaseactivity when normalized by the MO extract treatments. In conclusion, the MO extract successfully attenuated the development of PH via direct vasodilatationand a potential increase in antioxidant activity.[38]

Moringa oleifera, Lam. (Moringaceae) is grown world-wide in the tropics andsub-tropics of Asia and Africa and contains abundant various nutrients. This study describes the effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of M.oleifera grown in Taiwan. The Moringa extract showed strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and high Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity except the stalk part [39]. To develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem massspectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze quercetin (QU), rutin (RU) andkaempferol (KA) simultaneously in the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. and Raphinus sativus Linn.Samples were prepared by extracting the leaves of the M. oleifera and R.sativus by cold-maceration technique using 90% ethanol. The lower limit of quantitation achieved for QU, RU and KA was 5 ng/mL and thelinearity was observed from 5 to 2 000 ng/mL. The correlation coefficients oflinear regression analysis were 0.994 6, 0.995 1 and 0.996 9 for QU, RU and KA, respectively [40].Two new caffeoyl quinic acid α-glucosides, together with three known caffeoylquinic acids and five known flavonoid glucosides, were isolated from the leavesof Moringa oleifera Lam. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as4-O-(4′-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (1) and 4-O-(3′-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (2) by spectroscopic analyses.[41] Epidemiological studies have revealed that a diet rich in plant-derived foods hasa protective effect on human health.Identifying bioactive dietary constituentsis an active area of scientific investigation that may lead to new drug discovery. This information may help understand the health benefits ofkaempferol-containing plants and may contribute to develop this flavonoid as apossible agent for the prevention and treatment of some diseases [42].

Antioxidant, Antiaging, Antifelgue, Antiflammetry

The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performanceand related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130-132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kgof extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forcedswimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, andhepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract aredemonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid [43].High fat diet (HFD) prompts metabolic pattern inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria thereby triggering multitude of chronicdisorders in human. Antioxidants from plant sources may be an imperative remedyagainst this disorder. However, it requires scientific validation. Swiss mice were fed with HFD to develop oxidative stress model (HFD group) [44].Moringa oleifera leaves are a well-known source of antioxidants and traditionally used for medicinal applications. In the present study, the protective action ofsoluble M. oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) against cadmium toxicity was investigatedin the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ourfindings suggest the potential use of soluble extract from M. oleifera leaves as a dietary supplement for protection against cadmium accumulation and oxidatives tress [45].Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as analternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower onproinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages.Materials and Methods. [46]

The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn;it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging.The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded withantioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appeareffective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies fortheir anti-aging effects are still needed [47].The preventive effect of Moringa oleifera polyphenolic fraction (MOPF) on cardiacdamage was evaluated in isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity model ofWistar rats. Male rats in different groups were treated with MOPF orally at thedose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were subsequently administered (sc.) with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. Additionally, scavenging potential to the hydroxyl radical of the fraction was measured byelectron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) [48].

Menopause is a gradual three-stage process that concludes with the end of periodsand reproductive life. The antioxidant enzyme systemget affected inpostmenopause due to deficiency of estrogen, which has got antioxidant properties. The objective of the present study was therefore, to analyze theeffect of supplementation of drumstick and amaranth leaves powder on blood levelsof antioxidant and marker of oxidative stress. The results indicated that these plants possess antioxidant property and have therapeutic potential for theprevention of complications during postmenopause [49].The leaves of Moringa oleifera, collected in different provinces in Thailand,were determined for the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, major components, and antioxidant activity.Treatmentwith isoquercetin significantly increased the mRNA expression levels ofantioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and heme oxygenase 1. These results confirm that M. oleifera leaves are good sources of naturalantioxidant with isoquercetin as an active compound [50].Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is a rich source of antioxidants.All parts of the plant are medicinally important and have been used astraditional medicine for a variety of human ailments in India.Therapeutic efficacy of adjuvants with M. oleifera (MO) root extractwas investigated against beryllium-induced oxidative stress. Curcumin enhanced therapeutic efficacy of M. oleifera root extract and showed better antioxidant potential against beryllium toxicity [51].

Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes anefficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol andisothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects [52]. Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating antineoplastic agent is widely used in thetreatment of solid tumors and B-cell malignant disease. It is known to causeurinary bladder damage due to inducing oxidative stress. Rats were sacrificed 24h after CP injection. Biochemicalanalysis showed significant elevation of malondialdhyde, while reducedglutathione activity was significantly lowered. From the results obtained in thiswork, we can say that Moringa leaves play an important role in ameliorating and protecting the bladder from CP toxicity [53]. Moringa oleifera is a tree belonging to Moringaceae family and its leaves andseeds are reported to have ameliorative effects against metal toxicity. In the blood, delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit showed significant (p<0.05) decrease on lead exposure. However, administration of M. oleifera restored all the parameters back to control, tissue-specifically, andalso showed improvement in restoration better than DMSA treatment, indicatingreduction of the negative effects of lead-induced oxidative stress.[54]

The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overallacceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples werepreferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition ofMOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization oftigernuts [55].Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis.The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Since the efficacy was evident even in lowdoses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds ispersuasive [56]. A study was under taken to assess variation in antioxidant, antimicrobial andphytochemical properties of thirteen Moringa oleifera cultivars obtained from different locations across the globe. Standard antioxidant methods including the DPPH scavenging, ferric reducing power (FRAP) and β-carotene-linoleic acid model were used to evaluate the activity. Theinformation offer an understanding on variations between cultivars from different geographical locations and is important in the search for antioxidant supplementation and anti-ageing products [57].

Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as both a food andmedicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC), made by extractingfresh leaves with water utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates into moringa isothiocyanates. These results suggest apotential for stable and concentrated moringa isothiocyanates, delivered in MC asa food-grade product, to alleviate low-grade inflammation associated with chronic diseases [58].The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for aperiod of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight/day, orally. Results suggest that the antioxidant and hepato protectiveactivities of M. oleifera leaves are possibly related to the free radicals cavenging activity which might be due to the presence of total phenolics andflavonoids in the extract and/or the purified compounds β-sitosterol, quercetinand kaempferol, which were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. oleifera, leaves [59]. Free radicals trigger chain reaction and inflict damage to the cells and itscomponents, which in turn ultimately interrupts their biological activities.High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) finger prints of the 90% gradient extract visually showed few specific peaks, which on further analysis, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, were identified as flavonoids and theirderivatives. These findings might help researchers to further scrutinize this high activity exhibiting gradient extract and its bio-activecandidates for fruitful clinical/translational investigations [60].To evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential andanti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) grown in Oman.Flowers of M. oleifera were collected in the month of December 2012 and identified by a botanist. The results of our study suggest that flowers of M. oleifera possesspotent anti-inflammatory activity and are also a good source of natural antioxidants. Further study is needed to identify the chemical compoundsresponsible for their anti-inflammatory activity [61].

African ethnomedicine is essentially based on the traditional use of vegetal extracts. Since these natural drugs have shown health giving properties, in thepresent study we increased further the scientific basis supporting these data. These results, on the bioactivity and the biochemical characteristics of African plant extracts, may increase the comprehension ofindigenous therapeutic practices and represent the first step for theindividuation of new inexpensive and natural drugs able to prevent and contrastcancer onset [62].Consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) whichultimately trigger inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate therole of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) and its active component quercetin in preventing NF-κB-mediated inflammation raised by short-term HFD. All these changes were reversed in the MoLE/quercetin-treatedgroups with significant improvement of antioxidant activity compared to the HFD group. Thus, thepresent study concluded that short-term treatment with MoLE and its constituentquercetin prevent HFD-mediated inflammation in mice [63].The present study was aimed to evaluate the retino protective effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.The study was continued for 24 weeks and evaluated for inflammatory(tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α and interleukin [IL]-1β, angiogenic (vascularendothelial growth factor [VEGF] and protein kinase C [PKC]-β) and antioxidant(Glutathione, Superoxide dismutase, and Catalase) parameters.Transmission electron microscopywas done to determine basement membrane (BM) thickness. Our result suggests that MO may be useful in preventing diabetesinduced retinal dysfunction [64].

The vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Thailand have been suggested asrich sources of beneficial phytochemicals. The antibacterial assays showed that Moringa oleifera Lam., Limnophila aromatica (Lamk.), Merr terminali achebula Retz. And Phyllanthus emblica Linn.That were extracted using 80% ethanol as solvent werefound to have antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Straphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Propioni bacterium acnes. The results in this study may be useful for future application of edible plants that are native to Thailand to be used as cosmetic or therapqutic products [65].The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant properties Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) extracts and its curative role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxic liver injury in rats caused by oxidative damage. The totalphenolic content and antioxidant properties of hydroethanolic extracts of different MO edible parts were investigated by employing an established in vitro biological assay. The results of this study strongly indicate the therapeutic properties of MO hydroethanolic extracts against acute liver injury and thereby scientificallysupport its traditional use [66].

Consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may lead to multiple complications affecting human health. In thepresent study, effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) in alleviating HFD induced liver injury in mice has been reported. Moreover, significant increase in endogenous antioxidant parameters and lower lipid peroxidation were found in liver of all MoLE treatedgroups. Results of the study indicated that MoLE has both preventive as alsocurative hepatoprotective activity [67].The study investigated antioxidant potency of Moringa oleifera leaves indifferent in vitro systems using standard phytochemical methods. Theantioxidative effect on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were investigatedin goats supplemented with M. oleifera (MOL) or sunflower seed cake (SC). Lipidperoxidation was significantly reduced by MOL. The present study suggests that M.oleifera could be a potential source of compounds with strong antioxidant potential [68].Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowersare used by the population with great nutritional importance. This workinvestigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline(E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts containantioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources [69].The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable ofcontracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screeningand comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or E, using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Moringa oleifera Lam and S. album have also shown fairlysignificant AE in a vitamin combination dose of 0.001 mM concentration [70].

The present study evaluated the hepato protective effect of aqueous ethanolic Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced oxidative stress, which is assessed in terms of inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Swiss albinomice were administered MoLE (300 mg/kg of body weight) for 15 consecutive daysbefore exposing them to a single dose of 5 Gy of ⁶⁰Co γ-irradiation. Mice were sacrificed at 4 hours after irradiation. Liver was collected for immunoblotting and biochemical tests for the detection of markers of hepatic oxidative stress.,CAT, GSH, and FRAP were observed in the mice treated with MoLE prior to irradiation.Therefore pretreatment with MoLE protected against γ-radiation-induced liver damage [71].Studies have demonstrated that the induction of oxidative stress may be involved in oxidative DNA damage. The present study examined and assessed the hydrogenperoxide (H2O2)-mediated DNA damage in human tumor KB cells and also assessedthe ability of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts to inhibit the oxidative damage. H2O2 imposed a stress on the membrane lipids which was quantified by theextent of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formed [72].The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaves against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated liver slices in vitro.The study evaluated the antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaves against (CCl4)-induced oxidative damage in liver slices.(CCl4) treatment significantly decreased the activities of antioxidantenzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase,glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase and caused decreasedglutathione content and increased the thiobarbituric acid reacting substances(TBARS). Ourfindings provide evidence to demonstrate that the possible mechanism of thisactivity may be due to the strong antioxidant property of the leaves [73].

Bioassay-guided isolation and purification of the ethyl acetate extract of Moringa oleifera fruits yielded three new phenolic glycosides;4-[(2′-O acetyl-alpha-l-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl]isothiocyanate (1),4-[(3′-O-acetyl-alpha-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (2), a/nd S-methyl-N-{4 [(alpha-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]}thiocarbamate (3), together withfive known phenolic glycosides (4-8). In the concentration range of the IC(50) values, no significant cytotoxicity was noted. These data indicate compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 are responsible for the reported NO-inhibitory effect of Moringa oleiferafruits, and further studies are warranted [74]. This study investigated the role of antioxidant enzyme system following crudehydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MO) in acute paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity. The level of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-Stransferase(GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) was restored to near normal in groups thatwere pre-treated with MO. Histopathological studies have further confirmed thehepato protective activity of MO compared to group treated with PCM only. Theresults obtained were comparable to silymarin (200 mg/kg; p.o). The MO extractwas found to have significantly protected the liver against toxicity followingPCM intoxication by enhancing the level of antioxidant enzyme activity [75].

Anticancer,Antibiotic, Antielser,Antistress

Moringa oleifera, from the family Moringaceae, is used as a source of vegetable and herbal medicine and in the treatment of various cancers in many African countries, including Kenya. The present study involved the phytochemical analysesof the crude extracts of M.oleifera andbiological activities (antioxidant, cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in-vitro) of selected isolated compounds.Apoptosis studies were carried out using the acridine orange/ethidium bromidedual staining method. Comparatively both compounds showed muchlower cytotoxicity against the HEK293 cell line with IC50 values of 186 μg mL (-1) and 224 μg mL (-1), respectively [76]. Renewed interest in natural materials as food flavors and preservatives has ledto the search for suitable essential oils. Moringa oleifera seed essential oil was extracted by solvent-free microwave and hydrodistillation. Larva lethality was different significantly (P<0.05) between HDE and SME oils at different concentrations and incubation periods. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the oils was >1000 mg/ml recommended as an index for non-toxicity, which gives the oil advantage over some antioxidant, antimicrobial, therapeutic, and preservative chemicals [77]. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is widely consumed in tropical andsubtropical regions for their valuable nutritional and medicinal characteristics. Recently, extensive research has been conducted on leaf extracts of M. oleifera to evaluate their potential cytotoxic effects. Furthe rmore, the IC50 values obtained for MCF-7, HeLa and HepG2 cells were 226.1, 422.8 and 751.9μg/mL respectively. Conclusively, the present investigation provides preliminary results which suggest that seed essential oil from M. oleifera has potentcytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines [78].

The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes malerats was investigated. Forty r/ats were divided into four groups. The diabeticpositive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increasedIL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negativecontrol group. Urineanalysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uricacid, and albumin levels [79]. Moringa oleifera Lam. contains many active ingredients with nutritional andmedicinal values. It is commonly used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The present study was designed to investigate how an aqueous extract from theleaves of M. oleifera reveals hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. This study revealed that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves possesses potent hypoglycemic effectsthrough the normalization of elevated hepatic pyruvate carboxylase enzyme andregeneration of damaged hepatocytes and pancreatic β cells via its antioxidantproperties [80]. Moringa oleifera has been regarded as a food substance since ancient time andhas also used as a treatment for many diseases. Recently, varioustherapeutic effects of M. oleifera such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antioxidant effects have been investigated; however, most of these studies described only simple biological phenomena andtheir chemical compositions. These results suggest the potential therapeutic implications of the soluble extract from MOL in thetreatment of various types of cancers [81]. Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed.Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positivepurple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the areapercentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values.Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using theaqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment [82]. This study was conducted to determine the mechanism underlying thechemotherapeutic efficacy of an ethanolic Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOLEE) against chromium-induced impairments of rat testes using biochemical methods. After the blood sampleswere collected, the animals were sacrificed to determine the testicularantioxidant status and sperm parameters. However, concurrentadministration of chromium and MOLEE significantly ameliorated the chromiumeffects on the sperm parameters, local immunity, inflammatory markers and antioxidant enzymatic activities compared with rats exposed to chromium alone [83].

In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of moringa (Moringaoleifera Lam.), a natural biologically active substance, by determining itsinhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells.resulting in lower levels of NF -κ Btransactivation. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate that moringa fruit extract reduces the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including NO, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 via the inhibition of NF -κ B activation in RAW264.7cells. These findings reveal, in part, the molecular basis underlying theanti-inflammatory properties of moringa fruit extract [84]. The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiulcer activity of thepolyherbal formulation (PHF) containing the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera, Raphinus sativus, and Amaranthus tricolor in rats.he antiulcer activity of the polyherbal formulation (PHF) was evaluatedusing different models of gastric ulcers: ethanol-induced, indomethacin-inducedand ischemia reperfusion-induced gastric ulcers. Efficacy was assessed by determining the ulcer index. [85]. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) young leaves by in vivo as well as in vitro assays On the other hand, FRAP assay results of M.oleifera leaves was (85.00 ± 5.00) μM/g of extract powderThe significant antioxidant activities of M. oleifera leaves fromboth in vivo as well as in vitro studies suggest that the regular intake of its leaves through diet can protectnormal as well as diabetic patients against oxidative damage [86].

Oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progressionof hepatic damage in a variety of liver disorders. Hence there is a great demand for the development of agents with potent antioxidant effect. Pretreatment with the Moringa oleifera (200 and 400 mg/kg) orally for 14 dayssignificantly reversed the DMBA induced alterations in the liver tissue and offered almost complete protection. The results from the present study indicatetha Moringa oleifera exhibits good hepatoprotective and antioxidant potentialagainst DMBA induced hepatocellular damage in mice that might be due to decreasedfree radical generation [87]. Moringa oleifera, a widely cultivated species in India, is anexceptionally nutritious vegetable with a variety of potential uses in treatingrheumatism, venomous bites, and microbial infections. Histologic examination of the pancreas from diabeticrats showed degenerative changes in β-cells; MOMtE treatment significantly reversed the histoarchitectural damage to the islets cells.In conclusion, M. oleifera exerts protective effects againstSTZ-induced diabetes. The MOMtE exhibited significant antidiabetic andantioxidant activity and active constituents may be isolated from the extract forevaluation in future clinical studies [88]. Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiologicalfactor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis availableliterature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of Africanextraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drasticallyincreased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in theright proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has alatency period of about 50 years [89]. Moringa oleifera Lamarck is commonly consumed for nutritional or medicinal properties.Inhibitor of proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and NOS arepotential antiinflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents. Majorupstream signaling pathways involved mitogen-activated protein kinases andnuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). RBITC inhibited phosphorylation of extracellularsignal-regulated kinase and stress-activated protein kinase, as well asubiquitin-dependent degradation of inhibitor κBα (IκBα). These data suggestRBITC should be included in the dietary armamentarium of isothiocyanatespotentially capable of mediating antiinflammatory or cancer chemopreventiveactivity [90]. Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) is a majoringredient in Thai cuisine and has some medicinal properties. The PCNA index wasalso significantly decreased in Group 8 whereas iNOS and COX-2 protein expressionwere significantly decreased in Groups 7 and 8. The findings suggest that M.oleifera Lam pod exerts suppressive effects in a colitis-related coloncarcinogenesis model induced by AOM/DSS and could serve as a chemopreventiveagent [91].

Nutritional, Healt benifits

Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of theworld. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, severaldifferences are reported in the literature. Nevertheless, these leaves are agood and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used asnutraceutical and functional ingredients [92].We evaluated the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of the oilextracted from the seeds of Moringa oleifera during its refining process.Refining is accomplished in three stages: neutralization, degumming, andbleaching. Nine fatty acids weredetected in all four samples, and there were no significant differences in their composition. Oleic acid was found in the largest amount, followed by palmiticacid and behenic acid. The crude, neutralized, and degummed oils showed highprimary oxidation stability, while the bleached oil had a low incidence ofsecondary oxidation [93]. Moringa oleifera L. is a medicinal plant with potential antioxidant property.This study was aimed at investigating the chemoprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOE) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced testicular toxicity.Two-week-old male Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally injected withphosphate-buffered saline, 50 mg kg(-1) of CP and 25 mg kg(-1) of MOE. In conclusion, MOE may have potential benefit inreducing the loss of male gonadal function following chemotherapy [94].Aphrodisiacs are required to improve male sexual function under stressful conditions. Due to the effects of oxidative stress and dopamine on male sexualfunction, we hypothesized that Moringa oleifera leaves might improve male sexual dysfunction induced by stress. The increased sexual performanceduring the intromission phase might have been due to the suppression of MAO-B andPDE-5 activities and increased testosterone. Therefore, M. oleifera is apotential aphrodisiac, but further research concerning the precise underlyingmechanisms is still needed [95].

Phytomedicines are believed to have benefits over conventional drugs and areregaining interest in current research. Moringa oleifera is a multi-purposeherbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposesworldwide. An important factor that accounts for the medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera is its very wide range ofvital antioxidants, antibiotics and nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Almost all parts from Moringa can be used as a source for nutrition with otheruseful values. This mini-review elaborate on details its health benefits [96].Medicinal plants are believed to be a precious natural reservoir as they areassumed to have paranormal effects for the mankind. Moringa oleifera growsthroughout most of the tropics and has numerous industrial and medicinal uses. It has an enormous nutritional worth due to existence of vitamins and proteins. M. oleifera leaves, gums, roots,flowers as well as kernels have been unanimously utilized for managing tissuetenderness, cardiovascular and liver maladies, normalize blood glucose andcholesterol. It has also profound antimicrobial, hypoglycemic and anti-tubercular activities [97]. Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation andanti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) wasprepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levelsof phenolic and antioxidant activities. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) whichpromote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage [98]. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae isfound in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed atexploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealedkaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a majorbioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fractionwhich was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic.These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containingVicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro [99].

To date, the preventive strategy against dementia is still essential due to therapid growth of its prevalence and the limited therapeutic efficacy. Based on thecrucial role of oxidative stress in age-related dementia and the antioxidant and nootropic activities of Moringa oleifera, the enhancement of spatial memory andneuroprotection of M. oleifera leaves extract in animal model of age-relateddementia was determined. Therefore, our data suggest that M. Oleifera leaves extract is the potential cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. The possible mechanism might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the enhanced cholinergic function. However, further explorations concerning activeingredient(s) are still required [100].The protection against ischemic stroke is still required due to the limitation oftherapeutic efficacy. Based on the role of oxidative stress in strokepathophysiology, we determined whether Moringa oleifera, a plant possessingpotent antioxidant activity, protected against brain damage and oxidative stress in animal model of focal stroke. The protective effect of medium and low doses of extract inall areas occurred mainly via the decreased oxidative stress. The protectiveeffect of the high dose extract in striatum and hippocampus occurred via the samemechanism, whereas other mechanisms might play a crucial role in cortex. The detailed mechanism required further exploration [101]. While anti-oxidant effects of Moringa oleifera in much oxidative stress relateddiseases have been well reported, cryptorchidism on the other hand has been shownto cause oxidative stress. MEMO had nosignificant effect on testicular weight and MDA concentration, while itsignificantly increased sperm count, germ cell count, testicular SOD and totalprotein in the cryptorchid rats. The present study suggests that MEMO amelioratescryptorchidism associated germ cell loss and oxidative stress [102].

Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics andsub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soakingthe seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done.Its effect ongrowth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rat wereinvestigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weightsmeasured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 [103]. The unknown protective effect of N,α-L-rhamnopyranosyl vincosamide (VR),isolated from Moringa oleifera leaves in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiactoxicity was evaluated in rats. A reduction in myocardial necrosis was furtherevidenced by the tri-phenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) stain in isolated testdrug pretreated rats. These findings suggest the cardio-protective potential ofthe isolated alkaloid and possibly the beneficial action is mediated through its free radical scavenging property [104]. To investigate the potential of hydroethanolic extract of Moringaoleifera (MOHE) against 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA)-induced toxicityin male Swiss albino mice.Experimental mice were respectively pretreated with 200 and 400 mg/kg ofMOHE, and 0.5% and 1% of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) for two weeks prior tothe administration of 15 mg/kg of DMBA, respectively [105]. Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activitiesand can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products.Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities afterextraction. [106]. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is a rich source of essentialminerals and antioxidants; it has been used in human and animal nutrition. Theleaves and flowers are being used by the population with great dietaryimportance. These results indicated the possible therapeuticaction of flower and leaf extract from MO in protecting liver damage in ratsgiven an over dosage of APAP [108].

Nutritional, Health benifits

In the present study, in vitro antioxidant, antioxidative stress andhepato protective activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed oil (Ben oil; BO) wasevaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced lipid peroxidation andhepatic damage in rats. The oil at 0.2 and 0.4 mL/rat was administered orally for21 consecutive days. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linolic acid assaytests of the BO exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity in both tests used. Thepossible mechanism(s) of the liver protective activity of Ben oil activity may bedue to free radical scavenging potential caused by the presence of antioxidantcomponent(s) in the oil. Consequently, BO can be used as a therapeutic regime in treatment of some hepatic disorders [109]. Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) againstradiation-induced lipid peroxidation has been investigated. Phytochemical analysis showed that MoLE possess variousphytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, ferulicacid, ellagic acid, myricetin) etc., which may play the key role in prevention ofhepatic lipid peroxidation by scavenging radiation induced free radicals [110]. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an extract from Moringa oleifera (MO) on the development of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonaryhypertension (PH) in Wistar rats. Chronic treatments with the MO extract reversed the MCT-induced changes. Additionally, the MCT group had a significant elevation in superoxide dismutaseactivity when normalized by the MO extract treatments. In conclusion, the MOextract successfully attenuated the development of PH via direct vasodilatationand a potential increase in antioxidant activity [111]. Oxidative stress due to abnormal production of reactive oxygen species has been implicated in the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. The nephroprotectiveeffect of aqueous-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (150 and 300mg/kg) was evaluated against gentamicin-induced (80 mg/kg) renal injury inrabbits. The present study indicates thataqueous-ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves attenuates renal injury inrabbits treated with gentamicin, possibly by inhibiting lipid peroxidation [112].

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and theireffect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. Thispaper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidantactivity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of ADsymptoms [113]. Oxidative stress due to abnormal production of reactive oxygen species has beenimplicated in the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. At the end of the experiment, the kidneys of rabbits were excisedfor histological examinations and determination of lipid peroxidation levelsOn histological examinations, kidney ofintoxicated rabbits groups which received M. oleifera extract showed reparativetendencies. The present study indicates thataqueous-ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves attenuates renal injury inrabbits treated with gentamicin, possibly by inhibiting lipid peroxidation [114]. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and theireffect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of differentorigin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum(Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage) [115].

Others

Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of differentlevels of Moringa oleifera leaves extract (MLE) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in raw and cooked pork patties during refrigerated storage.However, the results of published studies to date involving M.oleifera are very promising. Additional human studies using standardizedextracts are highly desirable [116]. In Thai traditional medicine, Moringa oleifera is used for the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Oxidative stress plays a major role in thepathogenesis of many degenerative diseases, such as hyperlipidemia, diabetesmellitus, and cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the antioxidant effect of M.oleifera extract (MOE) for reduction of advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation, cell viability, oxidative stress, and lipid metabolism gene expressionin HepG2 cells. Moreover, M. oleifera may reducecholesterol and lipid synthesis by suppression of HMG-CoAR, PPARα1, and PPARγgene expression, thereby maintaining lipid homeostasis [117]. Phaseolus vulgaris plants were grown in the presence of NaCl and/or CdCl2 beginning from the second week, sprayed twice with moringa leaf extract (MLE) at 21 and 28 days after sowing (DAS), and were sampled at 35 DAS for growth andchemical analyses and yielded at the end of experiment. However, the foliar application of MLE in theabsence of the stress improved the MSI and RWC and minimized plant Cd (2+) content but could not affect EL and lipid peroxidation. Proline content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant increase in response to MLE as wellas to NaCl and/or CdCl2 stress [118]. The indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes aegypti has ledto emergence of resistant populations. Moringa oleifera seeds contain the lectinsWSMoL and cMoL. WSMoL has larvicidal activity on fourth-stage of A.In conclusion, Rockefeller and Rec-Rlarvae were distinctly affected by M. oleifera lectins, and larvicidal mechanism of WSMoL on Rockefeller L4 may involve deregulation of digestive enzymes.cMo Linterfered mainly on SOD activity and thus it can be investigated as asynergistic agent for controlling populations whose resistance is linked to anincreased detoxifying process mediated by this enzyme [119]. The main objective of this study was to assess whether recurring water stressoccurring from seed germination to young plants of Moringa oleifera Lam. are ableto mitigate the drought stress effects. Young plants wereused 50 days after germination under three osmotic potentials (0.0, -0.3 and -0.4 MPa). There was rapid recovery of the photosynthetic rate during the rehydration period. Thestressed plants from the -0.3 and -0.4 MPa treatments showed higher tolerancecompared to the control plants. The results suggest that seeds of M. Oleifera subjected to mild water deficit have had increased the ability for droughttolerance when young plant [120].

Conclusion

Major thrust by whole of the pharmaceutical industry is focused towards design and development of new plant based drugs through investigation of leads from traditional system of medicines. In the study of M.Olifera .L alcoholic extracts of roots, leaves and flowers gives different pharmacological activities like antileprosy, anti-inflammatory, antihelmintic, antispasmodic, antifungal, diuretic, anti microbial and antihyperlipidemic. Many important phytoconstituents responsible for the activity were isolated. The scientific research on M.oliferaL suggests a huge biological potential of this plant. Author also have various review and research articles on medicinal and Ayurvedic systems of plants, such as Tribulus terrestris, Oxalis corniculata, Cuscuta reflexa and Solanum nigrum [75.76.77].. These articles also have been provided very keen interest to students and researchers to make great achievements in medicinal plants research. It is also strongly believed that detailed information as presented in this review might provide detailed evidence for the use of this plant in different medicines. At the same time, the organic and aqueous extracts of M.olifera .L could be further exploited in the future as a source of useful phytochemical compounds for the pharmaceutical industry.