Keywords

Sugarcane, weed flora, Chodavaram Mandal, Visakhapatnam

Introduction

Sugarcane is an important commercial crop grown in Chodavaram Mandalam of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh mostly under irrigated conditions. Among several problems faced in sugarcane cultivation, weeds are identified as one of the serious problems resulting in low yields in sugarcane. Slow germination of sugarcane sets, initial slow pace of growth, wider row spacing, frequent irrigations and excessive use of fertilizers and long duration of the crop are some of the reasons for severe weed problem which ultimately reduce growth and cane yield ranging from 38 to 76% by [15,3]. Changes in the weed flora exposed to cultural, mechanical and chemical control make it necessary to study weed communities and determine their composition to improve methods of their control by [10]. Keeping this in view, the present survey was undertaken in sugarcane crop in Chodavaram Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District, and Andhra Pradesh.

Study area

Chodavaram is located in Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, geographically lies between 17° 49′ 59.88″ to 170 83′ 33″ N latitude and 82° 57′ 0″ to, 820 95′ 0″ E longitudes. It has an average elevation of 39 meters (131 feet). It is well connected to the nearest city and district headquarters- Visakhapatnam (46KM). Major occupation of the population is agriculture and sugarcane got major stake in it. The Chodavaram Co-operative Sugars Limited, Govada is the major agriculture based industry in the vicinity. The surrounding farmers are the shareholders in the said factory and are running successfully to the utmost satisfaction of the farmers and workers, by updating with latest technologies and gaining maximum sugar recovery from the qualitative cane supplied by the farmers.

Materials and Methods

The exploration of the area under study includes the planned field trips to the various places for crop weed collection. The study was carried out during the period of 2013 – 2014. The random quadrate method was adopted for this study to note down the presence of the weed species among the crop fields. Several field trips have been made to cover the interior villages of Chodavaram mandals of plain areas. In the crop fields, notes were written on habitat, habit, flower colour, aroma, associated plants, abundance and general distribution. The data was gathered from villagers regarding local names of the weed plants. The plant specimens were collected in both vegetative and reproductive stages in order to record the distribution pattern of weeds. After completing the weed collection from the crop fields the specimens were identified by comparing with the authentic certified specimens at the Andhra University herbarium, Department of Botany Later these identifications were checked again at the regional herbarium or in the laboratory with help of floras, Monographs and other relevant literature and the correct name were provided to each plant.

Figure 1: Weed flora in Sugarcane crop of Chodavaram Mandal of Visakhapatnam District.

S.No. Name of the weed Trade Name Vernacular Name Family
1 Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet Bead tree Thutturabenda Malvaceae
2 Acalypha indica L. Indian acalypha Muripinda Euphorbiaceae
3 Achyranthes aspera L. Rough chatt tree Uttareni Amaranthaceae
4 Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. Guana bana Pindikura Amaranthaceae
5 Ageratum conyzoides L. Goat weed Pumpulla Asteraceae
6 Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. Alternanthera Ponnaganti aku Amaranthaceae
7 Amaranthus spinosus L. Prickely Mullathotakura Amaranthaceae
8 Amaranthus viridis L. Amaranthus Chilakathotakura Amaranthaceae
9 Ammannia baccifera L. Blistering Agnivendrapaku Lythraceae
10 Barleria cristata L. Crested purple Gobbi Acanthaceae
11 Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC. Chumi Pedda attipati Oxalidaceae
12 Cassia angustifolia Vahl. Indian senna Senna Fabaceae
13 Celosia argentea L. Cockscomb Kodiguttuaku Amaranthaceae
14 Chenopodium album L. Drought weed Pappukura Amaranthaceae
15 Chloris barbata F. Chloris Jadakunchula gaddi Poaceae
16 Chrozophora rottleri (Geisel) A.Juss. Turnole Lingamirapa Euphorbiaceae
17 Cleome chelidonii L.F. Cleome Thotavovinta Capparaceae
18 Cleome gynandra (L.) Briq. Spider flower Vominta Capparaceae
19 Cleome viscosa L. Sticky cleome Kukkavominta Capparaceae
20 Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt. Ivy gourd Kakidonda Cucurbitaceae
21 Commelina benghalensis L. Vennedra Yanadra aku Commelinaceae
22 Corchorus olitorius L. Tossa jute Janumu Tiliaceae
23 Corchorus trilocularis L. Corchorus Bankaku Tiliaceae
24 Croton bonplandianum Baill. Vanamokka Galivanamokka Euphorbiaceae
25 Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Bahama grass Garika Poaceae
26 Cyperus rotundus L. Cuperus Gaddi Cyperaceae
27 Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Beauv Crow foot Nela ragi Poaceae
28 Digera arvensis Forsk. Digera Chenchalkoora Amaranthaceae
29 Echinochloa colona (L.) Link Shama millet Oodaragaddi Poaceae
30 Eclipta alba (L.) Prickly leaves elephant`s foot Guntagalagara Asteraceae
31 Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Goose grass Thippa ragi Poaceae
32 Euphorbia hirta L. Snake weed Reddivari nanubalu Euphorbiaceae
33 Gnaphalium polycaulon L. Gnaphalium Tella nugu patri Asteraceae
34 Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R.Br. Indian sarasaparilla Sugandapala Asclepiadaceae
35 Imperata cylindrical P.Beauv. Cogon grass Darbagaddi Poaceae
36 Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. Water spinach Thootikoora Convolvulaceae
37 Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees Leptochloa Todelutoka gaddi Poaceae
38 Lippia nodiflora (L.) Greene Lippia Mosalipappu Verbenaceae
39 Ludwigia parviflora L. Ludwigia Lavangakaya mokka Onagraceae
40 Marsilea quadrifolia L. Marselia Marsilea Marsileaceae
41 Merremia emarginata (Burm f.) Hall. f. Merremia Nallakulateega Convolvulaceae
42 Mollugo naudicaulis Lamk. Mollugo Peddaparipata Aizoaceae
43 Ocimum americanum Sims Rosary Kukkathulasi Lamiaceae
44 Panicum repens L Ginger grass Karigaddi Poaceae
45 Parthenium hysterophorus L. Congress weed Vayyaribhama Asteraceae
46 Passiflora foetida L. Sinking fashion flower Gajuteega Passifloraceae
47 Phaseolus trilobus Ait. Pillipesar Pillipesara Fabaceae
48 Phyllanthus niruri Linn. Bhunelli Nelausiri Euphorbiaceae
49 Physalis minima L. Sunberry Budda bhusada Solanaceae
50 Portulaca oleracea L. Common purselane Pappukura Portulacaceae
51 Portulaca quadrifida L. Portulaca Sannapappukura Portulacaceae
52 Sida acuta Burm. F. Sida Medasbirusaku Malvaceae
53 Solanum surattense Schrad. and Windl. Dwarf wild brinjal Nelamulaka Solanaceae
54 Sphaeranthus indicus L. Indian spheranthus Bodasaram Asteraceae
55 Tinospora cardifolia (Wild.)Hook. F. and Thamson. Bulonga Tippateega Menisperamaceae
56 Tragia involucrata L. Indian stinging nettle Chinnadulagondi Euphorbiaceae
57 Trianthema decandra Linn. Galijeru Tellagalijeru Aizoaceae
58 Trianthema portulacastrum L. Horse purselane Neerubailaku Aizoaceae
59 Tridax procumbens L. Tridox Gaddichamanthi Asteraceae
60 Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. Fiebane-purple Sahadevi Asteraceae
61 Vicoa indica L. Vicoa Adavipodduthirugudu Asteraceae
62 Waltheria indica L. Waltheria Nallabenda Sterculiaceae
63 Xanthium strumarium L. Cocklebur Cocklebour Marulamathangi Asteraceae

Results and Discussion

In India, weeds pose a serious problem in crop production. Because of lack of knowledge and financial resources, the smaller farmers cannot afford to remove them from their fields. Sugar cane weed fields are severely infested with 63 weed species belonging to 58 genera and 26 families. Of these 63 species, 52 dicot families, 10 monocot families and 1 Pteridophyte, Asteraceae 9, Amaranthaceae 9, Poaceae 8, Euphorbiaceae 6, Aizoaceae 3, Capparaceae 3, Convolvulaceae 2, Fabaceae 2, Malvaceae 2, Portulacaceae 2, Solanaceae 2, Tiliaceae 2 species, remaining families each one had single species. Among the weeds, Panicum repens is the most dominant followed by Cyperus rotundus, Echinochloa colona, Ageratum conyzoides and Imperata cylindrica. The survey also revealed that creepers like Passiflora foetida, Ipomoea aquatica, Hemidesmus indicus, Tinospora cardifolia, etc. [11] enumerated 88 species in Sugarcane fields of Visakhapatnam district which Cyperus rotnundus and Malvastrum coromandelianum are dominant species in the area. [16] Reported weed flora in the sugarcane crop fields, a total of 78 species (67 dicots, 11 monocots) were recorded in all the randomly thrown 60 quadrats. Merremia hederacea, Acalypha lanceolatas were the most abundant species followed by Phyllanthus amarus, Boerhaavia diffusa and Gomphrena serrata. Importance Value Index (IVI) of individuals weed species encountered in the sugarcane crop fields was identified. Cyperus rotundus was the most important species followed by Phyllanthus amarus, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Tribulus terrestris and Parthenium hysterophorus. [19] Studied the weeds in sugarcane crop in the fields of Nizamabad district were identified and their ethnomedicinal uses documented. Thirty nine weed species belonging to 17 families were identified from different mandals. Out of thirty nine weeds 18 are medicinally useful in the cure of various ailments.

Conclusion

The frequently occurring species viz. Cyprus rotundus, Cyprus difformis, Elytraria acaulis, Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus viridis, Tridox procumbens, Bidens pilosa, Ageratum conyzoides and Euphorbia hirta are also found in other crops where they are known to cause heavy yield losses due to competition for nutrients, water, and space. Cyprus rotundus is one of the prominent weed of the present study. It is one of the most noxious weeds of cultivation and its spread is so great and its ravages are so serious that in certain places, cultivation of fields has been actually abandoned in despair. The weed control before the flowering time the flower stalks should be chopped off with grass-cutting swords. The tubers are roasted and eaten by some people. Cynodon dactylon is one of the best and the worst grasses and its fodder is much relished by cattle and horses. But unfortunately it is the most troublesome weed in cultivated places. The eradication of the weed is extremely difficult on account of the underground stems which are very hardly and are not easy to destruct.