A field survey was conducted during 2013-14 in sugarcane fields of Chodavaram Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh to study the weed flora. A total of 63 weed species were recorded, of these 63 species, 52 dicot families, 10 monocot families and 1 Pteridophyte. Asteraceae 9, Amaranthaceae 9, Poaceae 8, Euphorbiaceae 6, Aizoaceae 3, Capparaceae 3, Convolvulaceae 2, Fabaceae 2, Malvaceae 2, Portulacaceae 2, Solanaceae 2, Tiliaceae 2 species, remaining families each one had single species. Among the weeds, Panicum repens is the most dominant followed by Cyperus rotundus, Echinochloa colona, Ageratum conyzoides and Imperata cylindrica. The survey also revealed that creepers like Passiflora foetida, Ipomoea aquatica, Hemidesmus indicus, Tinospora cardifolia etc. are dominant.
Sugarcane, weed flora, Chodavaram Mandal, Visakhapatnam
Sugarcane is an important commercial crop grown in Chodavaram Mandalam of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh mostly under irrigated conditions. Among several problems faced in sugarcane cultivation, weeds are identified as one of the serious problems resulting in low yields in sugarcane. Slow germination of sugarcane sets, initial slow pace of growth, wider row spacing, frequent irrigations and excessive use of fertilizers and long duration of the crop are some of the reasons for severe weed problem which ultimately reduce growth and cane yield ranging from 38 to 76% by [15,3]. Changes in the weed flora exposed to cultural, mechanical and chemical control make it necessary to study weed communities and determine their composition to improve methods of their control by . Keeping this in view, the present survey was undertaken in sugarcane crop in Chodavaram Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District, and Andhra Pradesh.
Chodavaram is located in Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, geographically lies between 17° 49′ 59.88″ to 170 83′ 33″ N latitude and 82° 57′ 0″ to, 820 95′ 0″ E longitudes. It has an average elevation of 39 meters (131 feet). It is well connected to the nearest city and district headquarters- Visakhapatnam (46KM). Major occupation of the population is agriculture and sugarcane got major stake in it. The Chodavaram Co-operative Sugars Limited, Govada is the major agriculture based industry in the vicinity. The surrounding farmers are the shareholders in the said factory and are running successfully to the utmost satisfaction of the farmers and workers, by updating with latest technologies and gaining maximum sugar recovery from the qualitative cane supplied by the farmers.
Materials and Methods
The exploration of the area under study includes the planned field trips to the various places for crop weed collection. The study was carried out during the period of 2013 – 2014. The random quadrate method was adopted for this study to note down the presence of the weed species among the crop fields. Several field trips have been made to cover the interior villages of Chodavaram mandals of plain areas. In the crop fields, notes were written on habitat, habit, flower colour, aroma, associated plants, abundance and general distribution. The data was gathered from villagers regarding local names of the weed plants. The plant specimens were collected in both vegetative and reproductive stages in order to record the distribution pattern of weeds. After completing the weed collection from the crop fields the specimens were identified by comparing with the authentic certified specimens at the Andhra University herbarium, Department of Botany Later these identifications were checked again at the regional herbarium or in the laboratory with help of floras, Monographs and other relevant literature and the correct name were provided to each plant.
Figure 1: Weed flora in Sugarcane crop of Chodavaram Mandal of Visakhapatnam District.
Name of the weed
Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet
Acalypha indica L.
Achyranthes aspera L.
Rough chatt tree
Aerva lanata (L.) Juss.
Ageratum conyzoides L.
Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br.
Amaranthus spinosus L.
Amaranthus viridis L.
Ammannia baccifera L.
Barleria cristata L.
Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC.
Cassia angustifolia Vahl.
Celosia argentea L.
Chenopodium album L.
Chloris barbata F.
Chrozophora rottleri (Geisel) A.Juss.
Cleome chelidonii L.F.
Cleome gynandra (L.) Briq.
Cleome viscosa L.
Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.
Commelina benghalensis L.
Corchorus olitorius L.
Corchorus trilocularis L.
Croton bonplandianum Baill.
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Cyperus rotundus L.
Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Beauv
Digera arvensis Forsk.
Echinochloa colona (L.) Link
Eclipta alba (L.)
Prickly leaves elephant`s foot
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.
Euphorbia hirta L.
Gnaphalium polycaulon L.
Tella nugu patri
Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) R.Br.
Imperata cylindrical P.Beauv.
Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees
Lippia nodiflora (L.) Greene
Ludwigia parviflora L.
Marsilea quadrifolia L.
Merremia emarginata (Burm f.) Hall. f.
Mollugo naudicaulis Lamk.
Ocimum americanum Sims
Panicum repens L
Parthenium hysterophorus L.
Passiflora foetida L.
Sinking fashion flower
Phaseolus trilobus Ait.
Phyllanthus niruri Linn.
Physalis minima L.
Portulaca oleracea L.
Portulaca quadrifida L.
Sida acuta Burm. F.
Solanum surattense Schrad. and Windl.
Dwarf wild brinjal
Sphaeranthus indicus L.
Tinospora cardifolia (Wild.)Hook. F. and Thamson.
Tragia involucrata L.
Indian stinging nettle
Trianthema decandra Linn.
Trianthema portulacastrum L.
Tridax procumbens L.
Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.
Vicoa indica L.
Waltheria indica L.
Xanthium strumarium L. Cocklebur
Figure 1: Weed flora in Sugarcane crop of Chodavaram Mandal of Visakhapatnam District.
Results and Discussion
In India, weeds pose a serious problem in crop production. Because of lack of knowledge and financial resources, the smaller farmers cannot afford to remove them from their fields. Sugar cane weed fields are severely infested with 63 weed species belonging to 58 genera and 26 families. Of these 63 species, 52 dicot families, 10 monocot families and 1 Pteridophyte, Asteraceae 9, Amaranthaceae 9, Poaceae 8, Euphorbiaceae 6, Aizoaceae 3, Capparaceae 3, Convolvulaceae 2, Fabaceae 2, Malvaceae 2, Portulacaceae 2, Solanaceae 2, Tiliaceae 2 species, remaining families each one had single species. Among the weeds, Panicum repens is the most dominant followed by Cyperus rotundus, Echinochloa colona, Ageratum conyzoides and Imperata cylindrica. The survey also revealed that creepers like Passiflora foetida, Ipomoea aquatica, Hemidesmus indicus, Tinospora cardifolia, etc.  enumerated 88 species in Sugarcane fields of Visakhapatnam district which Cyperus rotnundus and Malvastrum coromandelianum are dominant species in the area.  Reported weed flora in the sugarcane crop fields, a total of 78 species (67 dicots, 11 monocots) were recorded in all the randomly thrown 60 quadrats. Merremia hederacea, Acalypha lanceolatas were the most abundant species followed by Phyllanthus amarus, Boerhaavia diffusa and Gomphrena serrata. Importance Value Index (IVI) of individuals weed species encountered in the sugarcane crop fields was identified. Cyperus rotundus was the most important species followed by Phyllanthus amarus, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Tribulus terrestris and Parthenium hysterophorus.  Studied the weeds in sugarcane crop in the fields of Nizamabad district were identified and their ethnomedicinal uses documented. Thirty nine weed species belonging to 17 families were identified from different mandals. Out of thirty nine weeds 18 are medicinally useful in the cure of various ailments.
The frequently occurring species viz. Cyprus rotundus, Cyprus difformis, Elytraria acaulis, Cynodon dactylon, Amaranthus viridis, Tridox procumbens, Bidens pilosa, Ageratum conyzoides and Euphorbia hirta are also found in other crops where they are known to cause heavy yield losses due to competition for nutrients, water, and space. Cyprus rotundus is one of the prominent weed of the present study. It is one of the most noxious weeds of cultivation and its spread is so great and its ravages are so serious that in certain places, cultivation of fields has been actually abandoned in despair. The weed control before the flowering time the flower stalks should be chopped off with grass-cutting swords. The tubers are roasted and eaten by some people. Cynodon dactylon is one of the best and the worst grasses and its fodder is much relished by cattle and horses. But unfortunately it is the most troublesome weed in cultivated places. The eradication of the weed is extremely difficult on account of the underground stems which are very hardly and are not easy to destruct.
AcknowledgementsAuthor is grateful to agricultural officers, forest officers, local farmers and local peoples for their help during field work.
- Adiseshu G. Ecological aspects of weed flora of sugarcane fields at Anakapalle Ph.D.Thesis submitted to the Andhra University,1997, Visakhapatnam.
- Bhattacharyya G. Medico-Ethno-botanical value of Saurashtra weeds. J Econ Taxon Bot Additional Series, 1996, 12: 166-168.
- Chauhan RS, Sing GB. Chemical weed control in spring planted sugarcane. Indian Journal of weed science, 1993, 25 (1&2): 47- 50
- Daulay HS, Singh KC. Chemical weed control in greengram and clusterbean. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 1982, 52 (11): 758-763.
- Frick B, Thomas AG. Weed surveys in different village systems in south-western Ontario field crops. Can. J. Plant Sci., 1992, 72:1337-1347.
- Govindiah. Role of weeds in Ayurvedic medicine. Bull Medico-Ethno-Botanical Res, 1981, 4(3-4): 144-147.
- Kasara PK, Mohammed S, Chawan DD, Sen DN. Weeds of Indian desert and their chemical control. Indian journal of Environmental Sciences, 1998, 2(1): 23-27.
- Closky WB, Beker PB, Sherman W. Survey of cotton weeds and weed control practices in Arizona upland cotton fields. Publication AZ1006 cotton: College of Agric., 1998, Univ.Of Arizona.
- Morse LE, Kartesz JT, Kutner LS. Native vascular plants. Our Living Resources: A Report to the Nation on the Distribution, Abundance, Health of U.S. Plants, Animals and Ecosystems. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, DC, 1995, p. 205-209.
- agaraju N, B.V. Rao, M. T. Naidu. 2014a. Phytosociological studies on weed species of Sugarcane fields in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Int. J. Adv. Res. Scie. Tech. 2014a; 3(1):23-28.
- Nagaraju N, B.V. Rao, M. T. Naidu, D.S. Rao. Weed flora and diversity of rice agroecosystems in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Int. J. Curr. Re, 2014b; 6 (8): 8018-8022.
- Nath KK, Deka P, Borthakur SK. Ethnomedicinal aspects of some weeds from Darrang district of Assam. Ethnobotany, 2007, 19(1&2): 82-87.
- Patnaik H. Some useful weeds in and around Cuttack. J Bombay Hist Soc, 1956, 54: 140- 152.
- Phatak VG, Oza GM. Some useful weeds of Baroda, its neighbourhood and Pavagarh. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc, 1958, 55: 532-542