The study analyzed the economic of rice production in Gassol local Government area of Taraba State. Data were collected using structured questionnaires administered to 140 respondents’ selected using multi-stage random sampling technique. The analytical tools employed were descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The finding revealed that, majority (70%) of the respondents were male and married. Most (55%) of them were in their prime age and 62% had farming as a primary occupation. The gross margin per hectare of land was N72, 914.1655 implying that rice production is profitable in the study. Multiple regressions result revealed that, the Linear function gave the best fit, and was selected as the lead equation; farm size (X2 ), Seeds (X3 ), Hire labour (X6 ), agro-chemicals (X5 ) and Farming experience (X8 ) contributed significantly to rice farmers’ output in the study area. High cost of inputs, lack of contact with extension agents, poor storage facilities and high cost of transportation were the major production challenges. The study recommended among others; the creation of opportunities for enhanced farmers’ accessibility to inputs and as well extension agents should be giving incentive so that they can education farmers’ using different mass media communication strategies.
Understanding of the landscape features of agricultural lands and farmers soil management practices is pertinent to verify the potential and limitations of the soil resources; and for devising relevant soil management strategies. In view of this a study was conducted to characterize the landscape features and to identify the local soil management practices in agricultural lands of Konso woreda, Southern Ethiopia. Field survey was conducted and 225 geo-referenced surface soil samples were collected during the off-season of 2014/2015. Semi structured questionnaire was used to collect the required data at the filed level. For data analysis descriptive statics were employed. Results revealed that agriculture has been practiced on diverse slopes (0-95%). The soil fertility management practices indicated the presence of continues cultivation and low rate of nutrient replacement. The mean values of clay, silt and sand contents of the soil samples were 37.92, 24.47 and 37.60% respectively. In conclusion, most of the sampled cultivated fields were managed without fertilization and dominant agricultural land use types were rain-fed cultivation. The contents of silt in the soils were also very low compared to clay and sand separates in the study area. Finally the author recommend, environmentally and socially acceptable integrated nutrient management practices like agro-forestry systems, crop rotation, use of organic inputs, chemical fertilizers, and improved crop varieties that can be adapted to local farming situation should be implemented for sustainable agricultural development in the study area.
The present research was carried out to standardize the method for mass culturing the green muscardin fungus, M. anisopliae under konkan conditions under laboratory conditions during 2015-17. Study indicated that the mass multiplication of M. anisopliae on liquid / broth medium showed that the T-6 Czeapeks broth medium was the most suitable medium for mass multiplication of M. anisopliae (average mat weight of dry fungus 1554 mg), after 20 days of inoculation which was at par with T5-corn flour medium (1545.67 mg)., which also supported good growth of the fungus.
In the present study, PPFMs were isolated from phyllosphere of fourteen plants by leaf imprinting and serial dilution techniques. The fourteen isolates were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. The PPFM isolates were screened based on the effect on germination and seedling characters of cowpea cv. CO(CP)7. PPFM inoculation enhanced the germination, seedling length, vigour index, biomass, chlorophyll and soluble protein content of cowpea. Based on this study, nine best isolates including the reference strain M. extorquens AM1 were selected for further studies. The selected PPFM isolates were screened based on plant growth hormone production. The isolates produced trans-zeatin in amounts ranging from 22.04 to 117.32 ng l-1 of culture filtrate. IAA production ranged from 0.14 to 4.69 µg ml-1 of culture filtrate in the absence of the precursor tryptophan and 0.97 to 8.32 µg ml-1 in the presence of tryptophan. All isolates could produce gibberellic acid in amounts ranging from 39.33 to 123.0 µg ml-1 of culture filtrate. The primers specific for ipt gene encoding isopentenyl transferase, the key enzyme in direct synthesis of cytokinins gave amplification in the isolate PPFM-Ph. The trans-zeatin riboside content of four best isolates (PPFM-As, PPFM-Ph, PPFM-Pt and M. extorquens AM1) as estimated by ELISA ranged from 11.22 to 37.07 ng l-1 of culture filtrate.