Occupational gender segregation has been at the heart of debates about gender inequality. High levels of segregation have been considered to impose constraints on careers, and generally to be at the root of gender inequalities. This paper provides a detailed review of literature on occupational gender segregation in order to provide explanation from both economic and non-economic arguments of the continuous persistence of segregation in the workplace and how it impacts women’s career advancement. It begins with an overview of the theoretical explanations of occupational gender segregation and what existing research suggests is responsible for the difference between the employment outcomes of men and women. The second section addresses the extent to which the attempt to discern a monocausal explanation for this phenomenon is flawed with the consideration that the phenomena inherent in gender segregation are too complex to be explained by a single argument in all cases. The paper concludes with a summary of policies and measures proposed by the literature to address segregation with a series of key issues and opportunities for women’s workplace advancement.
The article exposes and analyzes Michel Foucault’s ideas on ethics. He embarked on this particular analysis by surveying classical Greece, in order to discover some pointers in doing ethics for today. He called it aesthetics of existence, as the ancient Greeks patterned their individual existence based on what they believe as the way towards attaining a beautiful life. The two important principles that were dominant then were care of the self (epimeleia heauton) and know yourself (gnothi heauton). Through his genealogy, it became clear that the ancient people puts more accentuation on the know yourself principle, which lead to what he calls as history’s wrong turning. He meant to look back in ancient period so that the modern subjects can have a glimpse of a possible paradigm they can adopt, which is to have a new ethics. Foucault would have that modern subjects also consider rapport a soi (the self’s relation to itself) as an important component a subject should assume to have a veritable ethical dimension. Finally, Foucault argues that there is a new way of doing ethics which is more in congruence to the situation of the contemporary subject.