Keywords

faculty members, commitment

Introduction

Employees are one of the most important determinants and leading factors that determine the success of an organization in a highly volatile work environment. Organizations cannot succeed without their employees’ efforts and commitment. Employees’ satisfaction with their jobs and commitment to their organizations has been viewed as major determinants of organizational effectiveness. Job commitment played an important element in retaining and attracting well-qualified personnel. Researches have shown that increased commitment improves employees’ job fulfillment, motivation, performance and creativeness, and reduces inefficiencies and dissatisfaction. This is especially true for service organizations, like academic institutions, which rely heavily on quality of instructions being delivered by the teaching personnel. The major contribution of the teachers in shaping the cognitive, socio-emotional as well as moral formation of their students is beyond compare. Being at the forefront of the intellectual arena, their pedagogical ideas could definitely influence mindsets. Withstandingly, organizational commitment of the faculty posed a very vital element to ensure continuous delivery of high standard of education to its clientele, the studentry. Justification for the need to investigate teachers’ job commitment is exemplified in the seemingly observed relationship between the lower levels of organizational commitment, and negative symptoms of absenteeism, grievance expression, tardiness, low morale and high turnover. Organizational commitment is an important indicator to administrators due to the desire to retain a stable and committed teaching force. Researchers are keenly interested in understanding the factors that influence teachers’ decision to stay or leave an organization. It is in this light that the researcher finds it relevant to explore the factors that effectuate organizational commitment among secondary teachers in public schools. Teachers are considered as the major ‚drivers‛ in propelling the ‚route‛ of any educational institutions. The necessity to identify the major predictors of organizational commitment would elicit effective delivery of quality teaching instructions to students. Hence, this study would provide valuable data so as to improve retention scheme, as well as to serve as a vital tool to craft future directions and considerations. In so doing, the system of education may be enhanced to better realize its mandate.

Statement of the Problem

The general problem of the study is: How do various factors affect the organizational commitment of the public and private school teachers in Guagua, Pampanga? Specifically, this study sought to answer the following: a) What is the profile of the public and private school teachers in Guagua, Pampanga in terms of:

i)Personal factors

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Civil Status?

ii.)Professional Factors

  • Educational Attainment
  • Length of teaching in the current school
  • Length of Teaching in other school(s)

iii.)Job Factor

  • Salary
  • Benefits
  • Job Satisfaction?

b)What is the level of commitment of the public & private school teachers in Guagua, Pampanga?

c)Do the various profile factors significantly affect the organizational commitment of public and private school teachers?

Methodology

This chapter presents the method of research employed in the study, the sources of data, the sample, the instruments for gathering data and validation, the data gathering procedure and the data processing and statistical treatment.

Methods and Techniques of the Study

The descriptive method of research is used to determine the predictors of organizational commitment of the college teachers in selected schools in Pampanga. This study is concerned with circumstances or relationships that exists, practices that prevail, beliefs, point of view or attitudes that are held and processes that are going on, effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing. It involves the description, recording, analysis and interpretation of conditions that exist. (Edralin, 2006). It involves tools and processes in collecting pertinent information about a certain phenomenon. The strength of descriptive study lies in describing the state of present occurrence as identifying the relationship between and among variables. It is very essential in providing facts on which scientific judgments may be based. The cohesive and systematic presentation of conditions is highly needed to substantiate the findings of the study. To gather the needed information, survey method was used. Survey research according to Cozby (2005) employs questionnaires to source out pertinent data pertaining to demographic profile, professional and job related matters.

Population and Sample of the Study

The research investigation was designed to gather the needed data on the personal, professional and job related profiles of the college teachers. The information that revealed their organizational commitment and job factors were based on the responses of the respondents to the survey questionnaire. The respondents of this study were eighty nine (89) college teachers in different academic institutions, namely, AMA Computer College, Guagua National Colleges, Mary the Queen College, Pampanga Rehabilitation Institute, St. Nicholas College, Systems Plus College, Holy Angel University, and the University of Assumption.

Research Instrument

Data gathering is the process by which relevant information and facts are brought together as the basis in arriving at the desired result of the study. The researcher used the survey questionnaire as the main tool to gather primary information. For the purpose of this study, the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was adopted. It was a copyrighted scale and initially developed by Sue Hay, a research fellow of the Institute for Employment Studies. The instrument was utilized to obtain levels of faculty members’ commitment to their organizations. The measure was created with commitment ‚being a generally affective reaction to the organization rather than specifically to the work.‛ This relates directly to organizational diagnosis, in that it measures employees’ commitment to the organization oppose to their particular jobs. In this context, organizational commitment is ‚defined as the strength of an individual’s identification with and involvement in a particular organization, and is said to be characterized by three factors: a strong belief in, and acceptance of, the organization’s goals and values; a readiness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization; and a strong desire to remain a member of the organization. The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (ORQ) is subdivided into five categories, namely, organizational commitment, service commitment, work commitment, career commitment, and job satisfaction. To address the aspects of relevance and applicability, the researcher trimmed down the categories into two, that of the organizational commitment and the job satisfaction. The Job Satisfaction Questionnaire has 22 items, two of which are negatively phrased. On the other hand, the School Commitment Questionnaire has 28 items, three of which are negatively phrased and reversed scored with a five-point response dimension, scored 1 to 5 respectively; that of , strongly disagree, disagree, neither agree nor disagree, agree, and strongly agree. The limitation f measuring morale and motivation by direct questions about their levels was recognized at the event. The more practical approach of using statements about commitment and job satisfaction as indicators was discussed as these provide greater understanding of the issues. To complement the primary data, other relevant facts were sourced out from various books, literature, studies, refereed journals, and internet.

Data Gathering Procedure

Consent from the respondents was secured to enable the researcher to conduct an academic undertaking on the predictors of organizational commitment of the college teachers in selected schools in Pampanga. A letter was prepared to formalize the intention to request the potential respondents to participate in this study (See Appendix A). The researcher personally distributed the survey questionnaires as well as tapped the electronic network to aid the data gathering process. Further, the floating of questionnaires was facilitated through teachers’ endorsement to their colleagues who served as respondents as well. The teacher-respondents were requested to answer all items to ensure completeness of information. The inhibition to answer the question ‚How much is your salary?‛ was addressed by assuring the respondents of the confidentiality of information, as affirmed by the non inclusion of their names.

Data Processing and Statistical Treatment

The accomplished questionnaires were collated and processed through the use of descriptive statistics, that of, frequency distribution, percentage, mean and standard deviation. These statistical techniques were also useful in grouping responses in order to get a picture of the distributions where choices of responses cluster (Guilford and Fruchter, 1973). In the assessment of the organizational commitment, the mean and standard – deviation were computed using the following formula (Zulueta and Costales Jr., 2004): To determine the organizational commitment of the teachers, their responses to the questionnaire were quantified using the scale below:

Descriptive Equivalent

Scale Value

Strongly Agree (SA) 5

Agree (A) 4

Neither Agree nor Disagree (N) 3

Disagree (D) 2

Strongly Disagree (SD) 1

The mean of the responses for each organizational commitment item were computed and analyzed using the weighted means for a valid and reliable interpretation of the data. The Likert’s 5-point scale (Subong 2007) was used to assess the organizational commitment of the college teachers. The descriptive equivalent provided a verbal interpretation of the mean scores so as to identify the level of commitment, to wit:

Mean Descriptive Equivalent

4.21 – 5.0

Very High Commitment (VHC)

3.41 – 4.20

High Commitment (HC)

2.61 – 3.40

Moderate Commitment (MC)

1.81 – 2.60

Low Commitment (LC) 1.00 – 1.80

Very Low Commitment (VLC)

To determine if there are significant relationships between the independent variables (personal, professional and job factors) and dependent variable (organizational commitment), the Pearson Product Moment Correlation was employed. This parametric test measures the existence of a relationship between two variables. It is the ‚most widely used correlation coefficient, designating the magnitude of relationship between two variables measured on at least an interval scale‛ (Burns and Grove, 2001).

Results and Discussion

The profiles of the college teachers in terms of personal, professional and job factors which are classified as the main independent variables are presented as follows:

College Teachers’ Personal Factors

The variables used in describing the personal profile of the college teachers in Pampanga are the following: age, gender and civil status.Table 1 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents by age. While 65% of the college teachers belong to age bracket of 32 to 22. Those under the age bracket of 43 to 33 got 28%. 4% are ages 54 to 44 and only 2% are categorized under the age bracket of 65 to 55. It can be noted that majority of the respondents are young professionals. Seemingly, teaching profession is becoming attractive to the younger age brackets which may be considered a positive development. Young professors can then relate to their students since the age gap is not that wide. The former can understand and empathize with the psycho-social needs of the college students. Innovativeness, idealism, zest and energy are just some of the remarkable traits that may be found among young teachers which could contribute in fostering a conducive learning atmosphere.

Table 1: Distribution of the College Teachers by Age

Age FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
32-22 58 65%
43-33 25 28%
54-44 4 4%
65-55 2 2%
TOTAL 89 100%

Table 2 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of teacher-respondents based on gender. As can be seen from the table, there is a slight difference in number between male and female teachers, in which, 46 or 48.31% are males and 43 or 51.69% are females. The figures revealed that the inclination of females to engage in teaching is very negligible. This indicates that there is no gender preference in the teaching career, hence, becomes attractive for both sexes. It is interesting to note that the findings of this study outlived the age-old notion that teaching is a female-dominated profession, is therefore a breakthrough. Regardless of gender, teaching is an acceptable profession that is given due regard as an occupation.

Table 2: Distribution of College Teachers by Gender

GENDER Frequency Percent
Male 43 48.31
Female 46 51.69
Total 89 100.00

Table 3 indicates that 58 out of 89 or 65.17% of the teacher-respondents are single, 25 out of 89 or 28.09% are married, 4 out 89 or 4.49% are widow and only 2% are separated. It is noted that majority of the teacher-respondents are single. Teaching is truly a noble profession for it requires enormous time for the updating of syllabus, preparation of lecture, checking of papers, computation of grades, and other related class activities. Hence, being single is an advantage to address the myriad demands of the profession.

Table 3: Distribution of College Teachers by Civil Status

CIVIL STATUS Frequency Percent
Single 58 65.17
Married 25 28.09
Widow 4 4.49
Separated 2 2.25
Total 89 100.00

College Teachers’ Professional Profile

The professional profiles of the college teachers in Pampanga are based on the following: educational attainment, salary, length of service in the current school, and length of service in other school/s.

Table 4 showed that 5 out of 89 or 5.62% of the teacher-respondents have doctorate degrees, 10 out of 89 or 11.24% are with doctoral units, 28 out of 89 or 31.46% earned masterate degrees, 35 out of 89 or 39.33% have masterate units and 11 out of 89 or 12.36% are baccalaureate graduates. It revealed that majority of the teachers are engaged in graduate studies. The figures clearly illustrate the teacher- respondents give high regard to advance studies, and this is a remarkable findings for such endeavor would enhance the quality of instruction. However, the minimal number of doctoral holders is a manifestation of less priority given by the teacher-respondents to pursue post-graduate studies.

Table 4: Distribution of College Teachers by Educational Attainment

EDUCATION Frequency Percent
Doctorate 5 5.62
PhD units 10 11.24
Master’s Degree 28 31.46
MA units 35 39.33
Baccalaureate Degree 11 12.36
Total 89 100.00

Table 5 revealed that 35 or 39.33% of the teachers received a monthly salary of of Php 7,900 to Php 16,675; 42 or 47.19% falls under the salary range of Php 16,675 to Php 25,450; 11 out of 89 or 12.36% falls under the salary range of Php 25,450 to Php 34,225 and only 1 or 1.12% college teachers received a salary between Php 34,225 to Php 43,000. The figures indicate the financial stature of the teachers. It is noted that most of the teachers’ salaries are not that competitive compared to the industry, particularly to those with license. The PROTECH or professional-technical, as commonly called in the academic parlance, are those who passed the national licensure or bar examination for certified public accountant, engineers, and lawyers. For those who are employed, these professionals usually receive a salary bracket of Php 30,000 to Php 120,000, however, for private practice, the earning ranges from Php 70,000 to Php 170,000 as confirmed by an interview with some PROTECH professionals.

Table 5: Distribution of College Teachers by Salary

SALARY (in pesos) Frequency Percent
7,900 – 16,675 35 39.33
16,675 – 25,450 42 47.19
25,450 – 34,225 11 12.36
34,225 – 43,000 1 1.12
Total 89 100.00

Table 6 showed the frequency distribution and percentage of the college teachers based on the number of years rendered in their current school/s. Data revealed that 61 or 69% of the college teachers rendered less than four (4) years in service which yielded the longest length of service. 29 to 32 years of teaching experience has the least percentage which is 0% and followed by 25 to 28 years which is only 1%. 17 to 20 and 33 to 36 years of teaching experience got 2%. Figures revealed that 5 to 8 years yielded 11%, 9 to 12 years is 4%, 13 to 16 years yielded 7%, and 21 to 24 years yielded 3%, respectively. It can be noted that majority of the teachers are just starting from their careers in their respective schools. It seems teaching is either their first job or still new in the educational arena. A small percentage of the teacher-respondents opt to stay long,

hence, it can be inferred that teaching is not an attractive life-long career for them. As the old-adage goes, “teaching is a noble profession”, in which the nature of work is so extensive yet the material returns are not that rewarding.

Table 6: Distribution of College Teachers based on the Number of Teaching Years

# of Years in Current School FREQUENCY PERCENT
less than 4 61 69%
5 to 8 10 11%
9 to 12 4 4%
13 to 16 6 7%
17 to 20 2 2%
21 to 24 3 3%
25 to 28 1 1%
29 to 32 0 0%
33 to 36 2 2%
TOTAL 89 100%

Table 7 showed the frequency distribution and percentage of the college teachers based on the number of years rendered in other schools. Data revealed that 84% of the college teachers have less than four (4) years teaching services in other schools, which yielded the highest percentage. While 4% rendered 5 to 8 years length in teaching service. 2% of them serve 21 to 24 years of service to other schools. Markedly, 9 to 12, 17 to 20, 29 to 32 and 37 to 40 years of teaching service yielded only 1%. It can be noted that majority of the teachers started their teaching careers in their current schools. Seldom the teacher-respondents are engaged in transferring from one school to another. This exhibits the sense of loyalty and dedication of the teachers on their first school of employment. It can also deduce that most of the teachers are still new in the teaching profession, consequently, the necessary competence and credibility being established through years of experience may be put into questioned.

Table 7: Distribution of College Teachers based on the Number of Teaching Years in other schools

Number Years in Other School/s FREQUENCY PERCENT
Less than 4 75 84%
5 to 8 4 4%
9 to 12 1 1%
13 to 16 3 3%
17 to 20 1 0%
21 to 24 2 2%
25 to 28 1 1%
29 to 32 1 1%
33 to 36 0 0%
37 to 40 1 1%
TOTAL 89 100%

Job Related Factors

The job related profile consists of the benefits, incentives and job satisfaction of the college teachers, in which, the following are its frequency distribution and percentages presented in tables: Table 8 illustrated that 37.08% were given less than 4 benefits; 49.44% received 5 to 9 benefits; 12.36% received 10 to 14 benefits and only 1.12% of the college teachers received 15 to 19 benefits from their employers. These figures revealed that most of the school-employers provide limited benefits to their teachers. More often than not, only what are mandated by law are given like the Social Security (SSS), Philhealth, PAG-IBIG Fund, 13th month pay and vocation leaves. It can be gleaned that teachers are not enjoying ample benefits.

Table 8: Distribution of College Teachers by Benefits

BENEFITS Frequency Percent
4 or less 33 37.08
5 to 9 44 49.44
10 to 14 11 12.36
15 to19 1 1.12
Total 89 100.00

Table 9 showed that 57.30% of the college teachers were given only 1 incentive from the school management; 32.58% were given 2 to 3 incentives; 8.99% received 4 to 5 incentives and only 1.12% received 6 to 7 incentives, respectively. This shows that 89.88% of the teacher-respondents are receiving minimal incentives from their employers. Incentives are usually given to acknowledge and recognize the invaluable contributions of the teachers in helping to realize the school’s mission and vision. In a nutshell, it simply denotes, “job well done”. Considering the voluminous workload, yet the teacher-respondents receive less than three incentives like the outstanding teacher award, scholarship grant and sabbatical leave. It appears that the teachers thrive on a challenging and demanding career yet devoid in financial gains.

Table 9: Distribution of College Teachers by Incentives

INCENTIVES Frequency Percent
Less than 1 51 57.30
2 to 3 29 32.58
4 to 5 8 8.99
6 to 7 1 1.12
Total 89 100.00

Table 10 presents the distribution and descriptive measures of the job satisfaction of the teacher-respondents. The data revealed that teacher-respondents have high value on job satisfaction as shown by the grand mean of 3.71. The mean values fall within the range of 2.84 to 4.29. Item 2 ‚I do interesting and challenging work‛ yielded the highest mean score which is 4.29. This indicates that the teacher-respondents have high commitment on this category. While item 17, ‚I have skills not use in my work‛ got the lowest mean score of 2.84, hence, the teacher-respondents are moderately committed on this category. This means that the college teachers find their work as a source of satisfaction and their teaching skills are being tapped by the school. The figures indicate the high value given to the nature of the work ascribed to the teaching profession. A sense of fulfillment is derived from the ability to share one’s knowledge and experience to students. The inner dynamics that interplay between the learned and learner outwardly pose a significant influence to find meaning and essence to stay put in the profession regardless of the countless self-denials and sacrifices required from the teachers. As stated in Expectancy theory of Victor Vroom, employees performance is based on individuals factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and ability. A positive correlation exists between efforts and performance. Adams Equity theory affirms the importance of creating a balance between input and output. The input variables typically include effort, loyalty, hard work, skill, ability, adaptability, flexibility, tolerance, determination, enthusiasm, trust in superiors, support of colleagues, personal sacrifice and ‚commitment‛. Output variables typically include financial rewards and intangibles like recognition, reputation, responsibility, sense of achievement, praise, stimulus, sense of advancement and job security.

Table 10: Distribution and Descriptive Measures of the Job Satisfaction of the College Teachers

Job Satisfaction Verbal Interpretation
Item Variables Mean
1 I enjoy my work most days. 4.17 HC
2 I do interesting and challenging work. 4.29 HC
3 I am satisfied with my job. 4.04 HC
4 I am noticed when I do a good job. 3.78 HC
5 I get full credit for the work I do. 3.54 HC
6 There is a lot of variety in my job. 3.8 HC
7 I feel the level of responsibility I am given is acceptable. 4.06 HC
8 I have a clear understanding of my job responsibilities and what is expected of me 4.25 HC
9 The major satisfaction in my life comes from my job. 3.4 MC
10 I often think about leaving. 3.01 MC
11 I know the standards of work expected of me. 4.25 HC
12 I feel my opinion counts in the school. 3.7 HC
13 I know where to get help if I have a problem at work. 3.96 HC
14 I feel my colleagues treat me with respect. 4.3 HC
15 I feel my views count in my department. 4.17 HC
16 My job fully uses my skills. 4.13 HC
17 I have skills that are not used in my job. 2.84 MC
18 I feel I am doing a worthwhile job. 4.11 HC
19 I get a feeling of accomplishment from my job. 4.1 HC
20 I feel valued by the management. 3.65 HC
21 My immediate superior lets me know how I am doing. 4.06 HC
Grand Mean 3.71 HC

Table 11: Distribution and Descriptive Measures of the School Commitment of the College Teachers

Item School Commitment Average Verbal Interpretation
1 I tell my friends this is a good school to work for. 4.01 HC
2 I feel very little loyalty to this school. 3.22 MC
3 I would accept almost any type of job assignment in order to keep working for this school. 3.34 MC
4 I find that my values and the school’s values are very similar. 3.83 HC
5 I understand how my job contributes to the school’s goals and objectives . 4.39 HC
6 I have a good understanding of where the school is going. 4.29 HC
7 I am proud to tell others that I am part of this school. 4.27 HC
8 My school is known as a good employer locally. 3.93 HC
9 I am willing to put in a great deal of extra effort to help this school be successful. 4.24 HC
10 I would be just as happy working for a different school if the work was similar. 2.49 LC
11 It would take very little change in my present circumstances to make me to leave this school. 3.33 MC
12 I am extremely glad that I chose to teach here rather than one of the other jobs. 3.96 HC
13 There is not much to be gained by staying with this school indefinitely. 3.12 MC
14 Often, I find it difficult to agree with this school’s policies on important matters relating to its teachers 2.19 LC
15 I really care about the fate of this school. 4.22 HC
16 For me this is the best of all possible schools for which to work. 3.74 HC
17 Deciding to work for this school was a mistake on my part. 3.64 HC
18 I speak highly of my school to my friends. 3.91 HC
19 I think this is a good place to teach. 4.12 HC
20 My school inspires the best job performance from me. 3.94 HC
21 I am proud to be part of my department. 4.33 HC
22 I would recommend this as a good school place to teach. 4.1 HC
23 This has improved as a school to teach over the past two years. 4.09 HC
24 I am confident that the results of the survey will be acted on. 4.02 HC
25 I work in a well managed school. 3.78 HC
26 Morale in this school is good. 3.89 HC
Grand Mean: 3.78 HC

Table 11 reflects the distribution and descriptive measures of the organizational commitment of the college teachers. As seen in the table, the college teachers’ responses for each item ranged from mean 4.39 to 2.19. Item 5 which is stated as “I understand how my job contributes to the school’s goals & objectives “ got the highest mean score of 4.39, followed by item 21 with a mean of 4.33 which is quoted as “ I am proud of my department”. While item 14 with a mean of 2.19 which states that “Often, I find it difficult to agree with this school’s policies on important matters pertaining to its teachers” and being interpreted as Low Commitment. Item 10 “I would be just as happy working for a different school if the work was similar” yielded a mean score of 2.49, signifying a “low commitment” verbal interpretation. It can be noted that then grand mean of 3.78 with high commitment as descriptive equivalent was recorded. Despite of the difference in school’s norms and regulations and the intention to consider other school, the teacher-respondents still demonstrate a high value on organizational commitment. This means that the ability to be a part of the realization of the school’s mission gave sense of pride to them. A clear manifestation of the inner desire not only to satisfy personal interest, rather the willingness to help the school to provide quality of teaching instruction. If the teachers’ personal goals and objectives are aligned with the schools’ mission and vision, its end result is higher commitment as validated by the mean score (4.29). To conceive a common goal between the school administrations and teachers is an ideal undertaking which could bring forth remarkable results. This is further exemplified with the findings that the teachers are proud of their respective departments. Apparently, “smooth interpersonal relationship” (SIR) and collegial support gave the feeling of fulfillment among teachers.

Table 12: Correlation of Personal Factor Variables and Organizational Commitment

Personal Factor Variables r t-value Decision Significance Level
Age -0.186 0.208 Reject Alternative Hypothesis Not Significant
Gender -0.102 0.208 Reject Alternative Hypothesis Not Significant
Civil Status -0.177 0.208 Reject Alternative Hypothesis Not Significant

Table 12 indicates that there is no correlation between personal factors and organizational commitment, as can be seen from the Pearson correlation matrix. The statistical analysis shows that the tabular value of 0.208 is higher than the computed values of r in which age is -0.186, gender is -0.102 and civil status is = -0.177, respectively, hence, the variables are not significant at 0.05 level, using the two-tailed test and degrees of freedom of 87. The null hypothesis which states that “there is no significant relationship between personal factors and organizational commitment” is accepted. The age, gender and civil status of the teacher-respondents are not predictors of organizational commitment. This means that regardless of the age (22 to 63) , gender ( male or female) and civil status (married, single, widow, separated), it will not pose important bearing on teachers’ level of commitment. Interestingly, it appears that there are influential and significant variables other than the personal factors that highly regarded by the teachers.

Table 13: Correlation of Professional Factors and Organizational Commitment

Professional Factor Variables r t-value Decision Significance Level
Educational Attainment 0.27 0.208 Accept Alternative Significant
Number of Years in Current School -0.102 0.208 Hypothesis Reject Alternative Hypothesis Not Significant
Number of Years in Other School -0.101 0.208 Reject Alternative Hypothesis Not Significant
Salary 0.018 0.208 Reject Alternative Hypothesis Not Significant

Table 13 presents the correlation between the professional factors and organizational commitment. The statistical analysis shows that the computed r value for the number of year in current school (-0.102); number of years in other schools (0.101); and salary (0.018) are lower that the t value which is .208, then the correlation is not significant. This leads to the acceptance of the null hypotheses, which states that, ‚There is no significant relationship between the number of years in the current school and organizational commitment‛; ‚There is no significant relationship between the number of years in other schools and organizational commitment‛; and ‚There is no significant relationship between salary and organizational commitment.‛ The educational attainment factor is the only that is statistically significant in which the computer r is 0.270 and the t value is 0.208 at .05 level of significance, therefore null hypothesis is rejected. The findings clearly capture the basic thesis of the Two-factor theory of Frederick Herzberg where ‚hygienic‛ or ‚extrinsic‛ variables like pay, working condition and the like are important elements for it helps to maintain the organizational operations functioning, however, its provisions do not warrant satisfaction. It is then vital for the management to also provide the ‛motivators or ‘intrinsic‛ variables namely, recognition, advancement, work itself, achievement and responsibility to ensure satisfaction. This is further exemplified by Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs which comprised of the basic or physiological, security, belongingness, self-esteem and self-actualization, presented in a pyramid form. These theories are relevant to the results of this study. Interestingly, the salaries being received by the teachers are not correlated to organizational commitment. The granting of good pay to teachers are not predictors of organizational commitment, apparently, there are other important variables that are significantly influential.

Further, the length of teaching service either in the current or other schools are not predictors of organizational commitment. This means that the teachers are not particular on how long they will stay in a certain school to pledge commitment. Regardless of the number of years being rendered, whether the teacher-respondents are newly-hired or senior in status, what matter most is their educational attainment so as to effect organizational commitment. Educational attainment may be equated as a higher level need as posited by Abraham Maslow and as a source of advancement and recognition for Frederick Herzberg. These theories elucidated the value of these higher order needs to ensure satisfaction and motivation among workers. Hence, this a remarkable validation that educational attainment is a predictor of organizational commitment.

Table 14: Correlation of Job Related Variables and Organizational Commitment

Job Related Variables r t-value Decision Significance Level
Benefits 0.102 0.208 Reject Alternative Hypothesis Not Significant
Incentives 0.306 0.208 Accept Alternative Hypothesis Significant
Job Satisfaction 0.78 0.208 Accept Alternative Hypothesis Significant

As presented in Table 14, job satisfaction is highly correlated to school commitment with a computed value of r = 0.78 while incentives given by the current employer significantly affects school commitment with r = .306. There is apparently no significant relationship between benefits and school commitment as clearly shown with the tabula -value of .208 which is higher than the computed r value of 0.102.

The findings of this study was supported by the research conducted by Cote, S (2007) wherein there is a relatively strong correlation between the job satisfaction and job commitment. The higher the level of job satisfaction leads to higher level of organizational commitment. He further noted that satisfied employees tend to be more loyal to their organization.

Benefits as a job related factor is not a predictor of organizational commitment, while incentives is slightly significant. This means that the teacher-respondents give less regard on benefits but considered incentives as necessary. Considering benefits are mandated by law, then these are already conceive as part of the basic pay. While incentives are given by management to serve as a reward to further boost commitment as manifested on various dimensions like competence in teaching, performance, perfect attendance, prompt submission of report of grades, attendance to meetings, and the like.