The use of medicinal plants has increased in recent decades due to their affordability and especially because of the assumption that natural remedies are safe. Some medicinal plants are used as leafy vegetable. In Bénin, Acmella uliginosa is one of these medicinal plants used as green leafy vegetable. Unfortunately, they are contaminated by environmental and industrial waste such as heavy metals. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Mn and Zn) contents of Acmella uliginosa, harvested in Cotonou (CAU) and Pobè (PAU) and to assess and compare the oral acute toxicity of the two samples. The heavy metals content was assessed by anodic and cathodic stripping voltammetry method. The oral acute toxicity of aqueous extracts was evaluated following the guidelines N° 423 of the Organization of Cooperation for Economic Development. The phytochemical study was assessed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. The heavy metal analysis revealed the presence of arsenic, lead, mercury, copper, manganese, and zinc in Cotonou sample while only zinc, manganese and copper are present in sample collected in Pobè. The heavy metals concentrations range from 0.028 ± 0.007 to 0.108 ± 0.052. Cadmium is absent in studied samples. At a dose of 2000mg/kg body weight, no adverse effects were recorded in Pobè sample in contrary to sample collected at Cotonou. The results showed that Acmella uliginosa harvested in Pobé (PAU) does not contained toxic heavy metals while sample from Cotonou (CAU) contained various heavy metals. Aqueous extract of PAU has no toxicity effect in contrary to Cotonou sample. The toxicity of A. ulignosa collected in Cotonou could be due the presence of heavy metals.
In a preliminary evaluation of ethnobotanically selected Beninese medicinal plants for their pharmacological activity, Croton lobatus L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Schrankia leptocarpa (Mimosaceae) showed interesting activities against Plasmodium and microbial strains. Considering these biological activities and the extensive use of these plants in traditional medicine, the toxicological profile of their aqueous extracts was assessed using oral acute toxicity in the rat model. Acute toxicity of aqueous extracts of tested plants was assessed at a dose of 2000 mg/kg as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, guideline n° 423. The rats were observed for signs of toxicity or death after administration of extracts. Distilled water was used for control rats. Blood samples were collected and used to evaluate biochemistry and hematology parameters. Histopathological evaluation was also done on liver and kidney. The results revealed that all tested animals were physically active during the test. No signs of toxicity or morbidity in rats treated with extracts were observed. There were no significant variations in the biochemical and hematological parameters between rats treated with aqueous extract of Schrankia leptocarapa and those received distilled water. A significant decrease of serum alanine aminotransferase and Creatinine (P = 0.01) level was observed in rats treated with aqueous extract of Croton lobatus while a significantly increased level of RBC (P = 0.04) and Hematocrit (P = 0.01). Histopathological examination of liver and kidney sections of rats treated with 2000 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extracts of Croton lobatus, Schrankia leptocarpa did not show any changes when compare to control rats. These results indicate that the oral administration of aqueous extracts (decoction) of Croton lobatus and Schrankia leptocarpa did not produce any significant toxic effect in rats.
Nutmeg, oregano and dark soy are among household spices which are consumed in large quantities globally. This study evaluated the mutagenic and genotoxic potential of nutmeg, oregano and dark soy using the SOS Chromotest on Escherichia coli PQ37 and the Ames Salmonella fluctuation test on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. The concentrations of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/ 10 mL distilled water of nutmeg and oregano, and 10, 25, 50 and 100 % dark soy were utilized for the Ames test while six concentrations of two-fold dilutions of 1g of nutmeg and oregano and 100% of dark soy were utilized for SOS Chromotest. The result of the Ames test showed mutagenicity of nutmeg and oregano but not of dark soy, while the SOS Chromotest results showed genotoxicity of nutmeg, oregano and dark soy. E. coli PQ37 system showed better sensitive than the Salmonella assay for detecting genotoxins in the tested samples. The results of this study indicated that nutmeg and oregano are genotoxic while dark soy showed genotoxicity only at low concentration. Long term exposure to these condiments can lead to bioaccumulation which might have varying degrees of genotoxic and mutagenic effects including cancer in exposed individuals.
Nardostachys jatamansi (N.J) is a small, perennial, dwarf, hairy, rhizomatous, herbaceous, endangered and most primitive species within family Valerianacae. Nicotine as most biologically active chemical in tobacco(Family; Solonacae) smoke. Nicotine has been reported to induce changes both in vivo and in vitro. Pathogen free, Wistar strain male albino rats were used in the present study. Rats were divided into 4 groups of six in each group i) Normal Control (NC) (Control rats received 0.9% saline) ; ii) Nicotine treated (Nt) (at a dose of 0.6 mg/ kg body weight by subcutaneous injection for a period of 2 months ); iii) Nardostachys Jatamansi extract treated (NJEt) (50mg/kg body weight) via orogastric tube for a period of 2 months); IV)) Nicotine + Nardostachys Jatamansi extract treated (Nt+NJEt), rats were received the nicotine at a dose as mentioned in Group II through subcutaneous injection and N Jatamansi extract as mentioned in Group III via orogastric tube for a period of 2 months. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hrs after the last treatment by cervical dislocation. Isolated the skeletal muscle tissue and measured the activity levels of Superoxidedismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathioneperoxidase (GPx). The decrease was observed in nicotine treated rats and increase was observed in NJ rats over the control. . In the combination treatment (Nt+NJEt) up regulation was observed. This results stating that Nardostachys Jatamansi extracts are beneficial, especially for the nicotine subjects improve the antioxidants enzymes status.
Traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60 per cent world population. Diabetes is an important human ailment officiating many from various walk of life in different countries including India. It providing to a major health problem, especially in the rural and subrural areas. Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is a herb distributed throughout the world. The leaves of the plant are widely used for the treatment of diabetes and as diuretic in India proprietary medicine. G. sylvestre, an Ayurvedic herb, came to be known as “destroyer of sugar” because, in ancient times, Ayurvedia physicians observed that chewing a few leaves of G. sylvestre suppressed the taste of sugar. It is used totally all over India for controlling blood sugar. This study was to determine effect of Gymnema sylvestre on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Oral hypoglycaemic drugs in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Results have indicated the negative effect of Gymnema Sylvestre on pharmacokinetics but positive effect on pharmacodynamics of oral hypoglycaemic drugs.